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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8540 matches for " cost reduction "
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A Collaborative Business Model for Imperfect Process with Setup Cost and Lead Time Reductions  [PDF]
Chien-Chung Lo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2013.17002

This paper develops a collaborative business model for imperfect process with setup cost and lead time reductions. We propose a simple solution procedure to derive the optimal order quantity, lead time, delivery frequency and setup cost. Shortage during the lead time is assumed to be partially backordered. Numerical examples are carried out to show how the proposed model can result in a substantial cost savings over the traditional model.

Energy and Economic Growth, Is There a Connection? Energy Supply Threats Revisited  [PDF]
Paul Ojeaga, Deborah Odejimi, Emmanuel George, Dominic Azuh
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.33007
Abstract: The increased cost of accessing energy and the effects on economic growth (GDP) across regions is one of grave concern [1]. The Cost implication of energy supply often shapes regional energy policies across the globe. This paper presents an empirical investigation into the relationship between energy generation and economic growth, while also investigating probable threats to sustainable energy supply across regions. Energy generation was found to have some implications for economic growth across regions. It was found that hydro electric, renewable energy and nuclear generation sources were significantly driving growth across regions while coal and gas sources were not. This was particularly true since the cost of fossils was having strong cost implications, for overall energy generation cost in countries in regions due to overdependence on fossils. Generating sources were also found to have strong implications for sustained energy supply (energy security), renewable energy and gas generating sources that had the strongest effects on sustainable energy supply across regions. This was probably true since regions were focusing on new technologies in energy generation process, which are cheaper, cleaner and more sustaining, while still depending on gas plants due to the relative cost implications of maintaining gas plants compared to hydro and nuclear generating plants. The method of estimation used in the study is the seemingly unrelated regression estimation method.
Market Share Restrictions and Efficiency  [PDF]
Caglar Yurtseven
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.612112
Abstract: This paper studies the effects of market share restrictions on research and development activities of firms. Market share of firms is closely followed by regulatory authorities and restrictions are applied in many cases around the world. This essay investigates if these restrictions affect the cost reduction based R&D efforts of the firms in a market. The question asked is important in the sense that countries with different regulations on market share, end up having different innovative structures, which in turn affect their economic growth and well-being. The paper uses a Cournot model, which shows that under the no exit assumption, market share restrictions lower the level of competition and possible rewards from R&D efforts, therefore causing smaller levels of R&D efforts both for big and small firms in the market.
Novel Solar Powered Cold Water Dispenser  [PDF]
Samir M. Shariff
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.62003
Abstract: Solar powered cold water dispenser apparatus is fabricated and experimental results are shown in this work. The system contains solar panels, two low energy fans, water tank fabricated from clay (pottery), thermally sealed box, and pipes. Once these contents are connected together, testing was conducted on water temperatures at both ends. The preliminary results showed a drop in temperature of around 15℃. This is achieved by utilizing free power from the sun.
The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management on Transportation Cost Reduction in Turkey
International Review of Management and Marketing , 2012,
Abstract: Supply chain management (SCM) has become an important competitive approach for organizations. The issue of green supply chain management is critical for the successful implementation of industrial ecosystems and industrial ecology. Organizations have a number of reasons for implementing these green supply chain policies, from reactive regulatory reasons, to proactive strategic and competitive advantage reasons. From an overall environmental and organizational perspective, it is important to understand the situation and what issues exist in this field. Many organizations worldwide have already experienced globalization and a shifting focus to competition among networks of companies in this environment. Multinational enterprises have established global networks of suppliers that take advantage of country-industry specific characteristics to build this competitive advantage. To success having this competitive advantage, logistics and supply chain managers have to balance e orts to reduce costs and innovate while maintaining good environmental (ecological) performance (Pagell et al., 2004). Therefore, today, competition is not between companies, between supply chains. This study brings us the effect of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) on the Transportation Cost Reduction (TCR).
Efeito do melado de cana-de-a?úcar no desenvolvimento in vitro de bananeira (Musa spp.) cv. Ma??
Ribeiro, Juliana Martins;Melo, Natoniel Franklin de;Coelho, ?ngela Katiussia Nascimento dos Santos;Pinto, Márcio dos Santos Teixeira;
Revista Ceres , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2012000300001
Abstract: despite offering a number of advantages as the quality of final product, the technique of in vitro cultivation of plants is still considered expensive due to, among other things, the use of reagents with high purity for the preparation of nutrient media. among the alternatives that can be adopted to reduce the costs associated with the production of seedlings, the replacement of the pa product for those with lower has potential. based on this information, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of molasses of sugar cane on in vitro development of banana cv. ma??. for this purpose, banana plants were inoculated in nutrient media made on the basis of sugarcane molasses, with four different concentrations (brix of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0) and data were compared with those of plants grown on ms medium (control), in a total of five treatments. despite plants have been developed in all treatments, it was observed that for the variables leaf number and fresh biomass, plants cultivated in ms medium (control) had higher performances. however, for the average number of roots, there was no statistical difference between treatments. the sugarcane molasses did not favor the development of banana plants, but can be used for in vitro rooting of these plants.
Reverse Redistribution Management
Veronika Vitkova, Petr Tulach,Tomas Hladik
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to prove methods of redistribution management on the model of unsold goods. A research was carried out with data sourced from the aftermarket sector. The research was used to explore basic questions of what are the benefits of unsold goods redistribution and how it should effectively contribute to inventory management. The existing information models have focused on forward distribution flows – from suppliers to consumers. The current information systems are generally in-depth specialized in forecasting methods of future consumption while they do not deal with returnable asset control. The paper provides a comprehensive description of the redistribution principles tested on the compiled model. The basic prerequisite that needs to be fulfilled in order to reach results, is sharing information between suppliers and consumers. For application of this method a shared information platform within the supply chain is required. The expected outcomes of the proposed model are reduced inventory levels and improved structure of the portfolio resulting in higher profits. The redistribution was conducted with the aim of accelerating inventory turnover and minimizing redundant purchasing. Furthermore, a correlation between unsold goods redistribution and higher load vehicle factor was identified.
A Grid-Connected Desalination Plant Operation
Won Ko,Jong-Hyun Lee,Chan Ham
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, a grid-connected desalination plant operation approach is suggested. In desalination plant, large amount of energy is needed to operate pump and motor; hence most of energy is electricity. For this reason, the largest part of the operation cost is electricity charges. To demonstrate power usage, small size desalination measuring system mounted plant is used. Finally, to show the result of a grid-connected desalination plant operation, electric tariff rate of Korea is used. The result shows that total cost reduction rate is calculated about 1.6% of annual total electric plant operation cost.
Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi , 2006,
Abstract: When analyzed deeply, it is scen that Target Cost Management is not a Cost Accountingsystem, but a cost management system and TCM is related with strategic cost (price) and profit asa cost management system. Besides, TCM also takes into account the interactions betweenmanagement accounting and the other divisions of the company. In this scope, it is aimed toreduce costs continuously within log-term profit planning process. Consequently, the reductionof costs results with sustainable competitive advantage. The main aim in target cost managementapplications is to ensure company to make desired log-term profits.
Estímulo do comportamento fotoautotrófico durante o enraizamento in vitro de Annona glabra L. , II. Aspectos da anatomia da folha antes da aclimatiza??o
Santana, José Raniere Ferreira de;Paiva, Renato;Resende, Rodrigo Kelson Silva;Castro, Evaristo Mauro de;Pereira, Flávia Dionísio;Oliveira, Lenaldo Moniz;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542008000200046
Abstract: the low survival during the acclimatization of plants regenerated through the micropropagation has been attributed, among several factors, to low the photosynthetic capacity. the development of photoautotrophic in vitro culture systems appears as potential possibilities of increasing the efficiency of the micropropagation. the aim of this work was to compare the leaf anatomy of plants of annona glabra l. cultivated in vitro, under photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, during the phase of rooting, with ex vitro (maintained in greenhouse under photosynthetic acitve radiation of 130-170μmol.m-2.s-1, without control of room temperature). shoots were rooted in photoautotrophic conditions (sucrose-free medium with aeration) heterotrophic conditions (medium with sucrose without ventilation). the medium of culture was the wpm supplied of 164.4mm of activated charcoal and 4.9μm aib. after 30 days of culture measurements of the foliar thickness of the epidermises abaxial, adaxial, parenchyma spongy, palisade and limb one. verified variations in the anatomy of the leaves, that had been characterized by an increase in the leaf thickness in accordance with the established aeration. in vitro photoautotrophic rooting of plants annona glabra l stimulated an anatomical and physiological development similar to the one observed in an ex vitro condition, which may minimize the losses at the acclimatization process.
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