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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1118 matches for " chicken "
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Quantitative Determination of Cd and Pb in Tissues and Organs of Chickens Raised in El-Jabel Alakhder Region—Libya  [PDF]
Ramadan E. Abdolgader, Ramadan A. Hussain, Salah M. Hasan, Agoub A. Agoub
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.48098

This study was carried out to determine the concentration of Cd, and Pb in the tissues of thigh, breast, liver, heart, gizzard, neck and skin of chicken. All samples were collected in the summer of 2004 from three different commercial farms of chickens production located in different areas of EL-Jabal Alakhder region at Libya country (Gernada, EL-Abrak and Sousa). For comparison, the metals were also determined in the same tissues of the chickens which produced in the national station of poultry production at EL-Akhoria city. The metals in the chickens feed and in water for both drinking and cleaning inside the slaughter house were also determined. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of Cd were found in neck, liver and heart while the neck and skin tissues contained the highest level of Pb. However, the tissues of thigh and breast flesh had the lowest level of metals. The levels of Cd in the different tissues ranged from 0.008 to 0.227 ppm and from 0.093 to 2.391 ppm for Pb. The results revealed that the levels of Cd in neck from all farms, liver from both EL-Akhoria and Gernada farms. Levels of Pb in the neck and skin from all farms were exceeding the permitted limits according to some European regulations. The results also indicate that the high concentrations of Cd in some tissues were due to the effect of high levels of these metals in the feed of birds. However the drinking and cleaning water had no effects on the level of the metals in the different tissues.

Effects of Organic Manures in Changes of Some Soil Properties at Different Incubation Periods  [PDF]
Sajal Roy, Md. Abul Kashem
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.43011

A laboratory incubation experiment of 60 days was carried out to observe the changes of soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and potassium chloride extractable nitrogen (\"\") in a soil to which three animal manures viz. cow dung (CD), chicken manure (CM) and a combination of CD and CM had been applied at a rate of 10 t·ha-1. The effects of manures varied with manure type and incubation period. Soil pH slightly increased with the incubation period up to 30 days there after it declined with time significantly (p < 0.05). There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in EC as days of incubation increased. Organic carbon contents of manure treated soils reached its peak at 15 days of incubation and decreased thereafter with time. The content of \"\" increased significantly (p < 0.05) as incubation period increased in control and cow dung amended soils whereas there was no significant difference in \"\" contents when either chicken manure alone or cow dung and chicken manure mixed in combination. After 60 days of incubation, the highest amount of \"\" was found in cow dung plus chicken manure treated soil followed by chicken manure treatment.

Effects of Inclusion of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Antioxidants on Spermatozoa Morphology of Potchefstroom Koekoek Cockerels  [PDF]
Caiphus Hlungwani, Francois K. Siebrits, Tshimangadzo L. Nedambale
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.52018
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and antioxidants (Se and vitamin E) on spermatozoa morphology. At 24 weeks of age, Potchefstroom Koekoek cockerels (n = 60) were selected from the base population. Cockerels were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments with 12 cockerels per dietary treatment. The diets consisted of commercial layer diet (CL), commercial cockerel diet (CC), modified layer diet (ML), modified layer diet +PUFA (MLP), and modified layer +PUFA+ antioxidants (MLPA) diet. At 36 weeks of age, six cockerels with ≥ 75% sperm motility rate following analysis by Computer Aided Sperm Analysis (CASA) were selected from the base population in each dietary treatment group. Semen volume, sperm cells concentration and dead cells did not differ significantly among any of the groups. However, live and normal spermatozoa were significantly higher in the MLPA group. The bent mid-piece, bent mid-piece plus droplets, proximal droplets and distal droplets were significantly lower in the MLPA group. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants may be of vital importance for normal morphology characteristics of spermatozoa in Potchefstroom Koekoek cockerels.
Clinical Evaluation and Surgical Management of Some Important Reproductive Problems of Intensively Raised Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria  [PDF]
Waziri I. Musa, Sa’idu T. Muhammad
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.53036
Abstract: Almost all healthy female chickens are expected to optimally produce eggs regularly. To maximize profits, nonproductive birds are often culled in commercial layer farms without due considerations to causes. Genetic and therapeutic manipulations to increase egg production per cycle often predispose birds to obstetric problems. Information on the detection and management techniques of reproductive abnormalities of the domestic chicken appear scarce. This study reports on clinical evaluation and surgical management of three major reproductive abnormalities of the commercial layer chickens. Egg yolk peritonitis, oviduct impaction and egg bound conditions were diagnosed and surgically managed following standard surgical procedures. Palpation and abdominocenthesis using flexible rubber catheter, abdomino-pelvic ultrasound scan and ventra-dorsal X-ray techniques were used to establish diagnosis. In all reported conditions herein, surgery was employed to correct them. The study showed values of diagnostic imaging and surgery to correcting obstetric conditions of domestic chickens.
Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during Frying of Chicken Burger Patties  [PDF]
Woan Chwen Wong, Chai Fung Pui, Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek, Ahmad Noorlis, John Yew Huat Tang, Yoshitsugu Nakaguchi, Mitsuaki Nishibuchi, Son Radu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.25067
Abstract: This study was aimed to determine sufficient frying time to reduce the number of Listeria monocytogenes present in chicken burger patties to non-detectable level which is fit for human consumption. Commercially available chicken burger patties were artificially contaminated with L. monocytogenes at level of approximately 9 log CFU/ml. The contaminated chicken burger patties were cooked for 0, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 10 minutes to determine survival of L. monocyto-genes. Results demonstrated a linear correlation between mean log reduction of L. monocytogenes and frying time. L. monocytogenes was not detected in chicken burger patties that were cooked for 6 minutes and above. As a result from this study, it is suggested that a minimum frying time for burger patties is 6 minutes. This can be treated as a safety measure to avoid consequences of consumption of undercooked burger patties.
Physico-Chemical Changes in Ready to Eat Pineapple Chicken Curry during Frozen Storage  [PDF]
Kappat Valiyapeediyekkal Sunooj, Kolpe Radhakrishna
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42016

RTE Pineapple chicken curry, a traditional Kerala recipe, was prepared and standardized by using de-boned broiler meat chunks, pineapple and spices. The product having both meat and gravy (1:1.9) was packed in polyethylene pouches and stored at -18± 2for 6 months. During frozen storage, the free fatty acid (FFA) values were 0.28 - 0.46 (as percentage oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were 1.68 - 2.45 (mg of malonaldehyde/Kg of sample) increased in both meat and gravy. Meat and gravy pH were in the range of 5.5 to 6. Marginal decrease in shear force values (43.4 - 39.6 N) were also observed. During storage the SPC was found to be decreasing over period of storage (100, 40, 20, <10 respectively). Psychrophiles were within acceptable limit and pathogens were absent. Microbiological data showed that the product was microbiologically safe. The sensory score indicated that the RTE pineapple chicken curry is acceptable after storage at -18± 2for 6 months.

Production of Hydroxylapatite from Biowaste, Chicken Manure by Hydrothermal Process  [PDF]
Sevgihan Yildiz Bircan, Ichiro Naruse, Kozo Matsumoto, Kuniyuki Kitagawa
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.31010

Hydrothermal process has been applied for effective production of Hydrogen from biowastes. In this study hydrothermal process for production of valuable Hydroxylapatitefrom chicken manure containing phosphorus was focused on. Conditions of 400?C and 26 - 27 MPa with addition of 1 mmol Ca(OH)2 were determined as the optimal by using O-phospho-DL-serine as a model compound. Afterwards, the real biowaste containing phosphorous, chicken manure was processed under the same conditions. Formation of a Hydroxylapatite; in the solid residue was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, after purification. It was found that 27.9% of P in the chicken manure was converted to Hydroxylapatite. With the use of acetic acid as a chemical purification medium, Hydroxylapatite was obtained.

Element Concentration in the Prepared and Commercial Feed as Well Their Status in the Breast Muscle of Chicken after Prolonged Feeding  [PDF]
Jayanta Kumar Goswami, Satya Sarmah, Dhirendra K. Sharma
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411152

Quality poultry meat depends upon the feed and as such there are many commercially available feeds. However, their composition and standard by and large throughout the year may not remain same due to obvious reasons. Moreover, there is no mention of locally produced feed particularly in the north eastern part of India. The major objective of this study was to prepare mesh feed E1 with the available ingredients as well as their effect were compared with that of the two commercially available feed Amrit and Godrej (E2 and E3) in terms of Crude protein, fats and element composition. The findings showed that the protein content (240 g/kg) and fats (105 g/kg) in the breast muscle of female was higher in the E3 received against the broiler chicken received local feed. Element analysis of the E1, E2 and E3 depicted significantly higher value of Ca, K, Cu Zn and Se against the commercial feed. Other elements like Mg, Na, Fe, P, and Mn showed no variation while compared E1, E2 and E3 together. Thus the present findings suggest that the local feed E1 could be accepted at per with that of the commercial feed for poultry.

Analysis of Chicken T Cell-Mediated Responses on Thymus after Immune Stress  [PDF]
Zhenhu Jia, Yufang Cao, Yaju Xue, Fangxiang Li, Min Liu, Cai Zhang, Yufei Yang, Jiangyan Duan
Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines and Antimicrobials (JIBTVA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jibtva.2014.32003
In order to assess chicken T cell-mediated responses after immune stress, 200 two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into control group(C) and treatment groups (T1 and T2). The live I-type of Newcastle disease vaccine (ND) was taken as the source of immunological stress. The chickens in group (T2) were injected with overdose of live I-type Newcastle disease vaccine. After vaccination, the dynamic changes of CD4+, CD8+T cells on thymus were detected by immunohisto-chemistry. The ultra-structure of T cells on thymus of the chickens in group (T2) was observed by electron microscopic. The result showed: (1) After immune stress, from day 1 to day 5, the number of the CD4+T cells significantly declined and reached the bottom at day 5, but the number of the CD8+T cells increased dramatically and peaked at day 5. (2) After immune stress, from day 1 to day 5, part of T cells of chicken thymus came with apoptotic and pathological changes of putrescence continually. These results underscore: the immune stress can cause transient immune adjustment. These changes for chickens were the self-protection mechanism of immune system to adapt to survival and avoid immune disorder.
Effect of Temperature and Metal Ions on Degradation of Oxytetracycline in Different Matrices  [PDF]
Yingying Zhang, Heqing Tang, Qian Zhou, Lihua Zhu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.58068

Composting is widely applied in animal manure treatment and reclamation. The degradation of organic pollutants during the composting treatment is attributed to two parallel processes: one is the bioprocess induced by the used microorganisms, and the other is the chemical process. In order to clarify the relative contribution of the chemical process to the compositing, in this paper, oxytetracycline (OTC) was chosen to study the degradation of tetracyclines (TCs) in water and chicken manure. It was observed that the degradation of OTC in water was much faster than that in chicken mature. At 40°C, 95% of OTC in water could be removed in two days, while it took about one month in mature. By increasing the temperature to 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, the required degradation time (with the degradation efficiency more than 95%) was shortened to 22, 13 and 9 days, respectively. This difference was caused by desorption hysteresis and irreversible fixation due to the formation of complexes of OTC with co-existed metal ions in the matrix. It was found that the coexisted Ca2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions decreased the degradation of OTC, whereas Cu2+ ions promoted the degradation of OTC.

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