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The Challenge of UNASUR Member Countries to Replace ICSID Arbitration  [PDF]
Silvia Karina Fiezzoni
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.23014
Abstract: In the 2000s, the financial crisis in Argentina and several nationalizations carried out by governments in South America have spawned a large number of claims before International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Latin Americans began to look at ICSID critically, there have been complaints about ICSID's connections with the World Bank; non-commercial interests, such as health or environmental protection, have not received adequate attention in the arbitration cases; a lack of transparency by arbitration panels; and the absence of an appeals process, but only a limited annulment procedure. This situation generates impacts upon the overall due process of ICSID arbitrations and Latin American hostility against ICSID, such the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of our America Peoples'Trade Treaty (ALBA-TCP) Declaration to denounce ICSID Convention and the firm intention of Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) countries to create a regional arbitration centre to replace ICSID arbitration.
Evaluating Potential Vaccine Antigens in both the Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Mouse Challenge Models  [PDF]
Robin M. Kaufhold, Melissa A. Boddicker, Jodie A. Field, Bob J. Lucas, Joseph M. Antonello, Amy S. Espeseth, Julie M. Skinner, Jon H. Heinrichs, Jeffrey G. Smith
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2019.92004
Abstract: Identifying relevant animal challenge models adds to the complexity of human vaccine development. Murine challenge models have been the most utilized animal model for Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine development. The question arises as to whether the C. trachomatis or C. muridarum pre-clinical model is optimal. We compared C. muridarum and C. trachomatis intravaginal challenge models in a combined total of seventy-five studies evaluating potential vaccine candidates. In 100% (42/42) of C. muridarum studies, mice immunized with Chlamydia elementary bodies (EB) demonstrated a significant reduction in urogenital bacterial shedding as measured by qPCR (p < 0.05) compared to adjuvant-control-immunized mice. Significant reduction in urogenital shedding was observed for EB-immunized groups in only 82% (27/33) of C. trachomatis studies. We have evaluated proposed vaccine antigens in both models and observed immunization with Chlamydia major outer membrane protein (MOMP) vaccine formulations to be protective (p < 0.05) in both models, immunization with polymorphic membrane protein serovar D (PmpD) p73 passenger domain was protective only in the C. trachomatis model, and immunization with PmpD p82 translocator domain was not protective in either model. We also observed in both models that depletion of CD4+ T-cells in MOMP-immunized mice resulted in diminished protective immunity but animals were still able to reduce the infection level. In contrast, mice immunized with live EBs by intraperitoneal route did not require CD4+ T-cells to resolve urogenital infection from intravaginal challenge in either model. Overall, we have found the C. muridarum model to be a more robust, reliable, and reproducible model for vaccine antigen discovery.
Pacific Alliance and the Challenge of the Green Economy  [PDF]
Ernesto Rangel, Angel Licona
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61008
Abstract: The Pacific Alliance (PA) was constituted on April 28, 2011 by Mexico, Colombia, Chile and Peru. It represents a market of 209 million people with a GDP of over 2 billion USD. It has more than 35 percent of GDP in Latin America and concentrates 50 percent of Latin American exports to the world. PA as regional integration instance that moves progressively to the openness of the movement of goods, services and investments and, shows even more the importance of the Asia Pacific region, whose economic dynamics and competitiveness achieved in the XXI century, presents a greater challenge to Latin American economies. With the integration process that keeps the four countries of the PA, it is necessary to extend cooperation with APEC, particularly in green economy area as an alternative to the challenge of the problems of climate change, the Kyoto protocol and technological change, among others issues, being an alternative to address the deterioration of renewable and nonrenewable resources in the various PEC economies. The authors present the PA as a promising regional integration initiative that should use the experience of APEC to open a field of collaboration that allows the rapprochement between these two regions, in order to promote friendly competition with the environment. The experiences followed by each of the member economies of the PA are presented as a suitable platform to search for mechanisms intra and interregional collaboration that enable green economy that should be aspirated.
Experimental Induction of Escherichia coli Diarrhoea in Weaned Piglets  [PDF]
Luciana Rossi, Simona Vagni, Carlo Polidori, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Antonella Baldi, Vittorio Dell’Orto
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.21001
Abstract: Escherichia coli diarrhoea is a multifactorial condition which usually occurs during the post-weaning and is responsible for economic losses in pig production. One approach, to evaluate if substitute of antibiotic in vivo is effective in controlling postweaning diarrhea in the gastrointestinal tract ecosystem, is to use an appropriate disease model. However, there are still many criticisms related to the incidence and the severity of the diarrhoea in the experimental conditions. The aim of the study was to set up an Escherichia coli challenge model in order to induce a significant percentage of diarrhoea in weaned piglets for the evaluation of innovative compounds in vivo. A total of 35 piglets, weaned at 33±2 days were randomized into 3 groups: control (CG), infected 1 (IG1) and infected 2 (IG2). One day after arrival piglets of IG1 and IG2 were orally inoculated with 3.7 × 108 CFU of Escherichia coli O149. All piglets were fed a high protein ration for 3 days. Daily health status and faeces were recorded by a point scale individually. Challenge strains in faecal samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, serotyping and biochemical identification. Diarrhoea was observed in 96.67% (58.6% severe; 41.4% mild) of all infected piglets and occurred on average 1.3 days after the challenge. The CG group presented one piglet with a transient mild diarrhoea. The E. coli challenge significantly affected the consistency and color of faeces (P < 0.001). The E. coli O149, mainly hemolytic (88%), was isolated in 56% of faecal samples and the 70% of piglets with severe diarrhoea shed E. coli O149 in the faeces. Zootechnical parameters did not show significant differences. The experimental conditions described in this study allowed to effectively induce diarrhoea in weaned piglets. In conclusion a multifactorial approach (infectious, nutritional and management) is necessary to reproduce in vivo diarrhea in piglets.
Big Data, Big Change: In the Financial Management  [PDF]
Ming Ke, Yuxin Shi
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2014.34009
Abstract: In recent years, \"Big Data\" has attracted increasing attention. It has already proved its importance and value in several areas, such as aerospace research, biomedicine, and so on. In \"Big Data\" era, financial work which is dominated by transaction, business record, business accounting and predictions may spring to life. This paper makes an analysis about what change that \"Big Data\" brings to Accounting Data Processing, Comprehensive Budget Management, and Management Accounting through affecting the idea, function, mode, and method of financial management. Then the paper states the challenges that \"Big Data\" brings to enterprise aiming to illustrate that only through fostering strengths and circumventing weaknesses can an enterprise remain invincible in \"Big Data\" era.
Discriminating Depression, Physical and Social Anhedonia by Neurotransmitter Related Challenge Tests  [PDF]
Petra Netter, Juergen Hennig
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.73030

The aim of this study was to investigate, if anhedonia, a salient component of depression, shows similar response patterns to neurotransmitter challenge tests as depression, and if the two questionnaire based components Physical (PA) and Social (SA) Anhedonia can be discriminated by differences in drug related size and time of cortisol responses elicited by the specific serotonin (5- HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors citalopram and reboxetine and prolactin responses to the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine orally applied to 36 male volunteers in a double blind balanced cross-over design. Analyses of variance applied to placebo corrected hormone responses revealed that low and late DA responses were characteristics of global Depression and of Physical Anhedonia, and that low DA responses were associated with high NA responses in PA, and with low 5-HT responses in SA. These patterns were explained by differences in transmitter production and receptor sensitivities and proved to be suitable to discriminate PA from SA and from global depression by analysing neurochemical response patterns rather than single means of variables.

Effects of Money Laundering on the Economy of Nigeria  [PDF]
Akin Olawale Oluwadayisi, Moruf Oluwakayode Mimiko
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.72017
Abstract: The effects of economic crime can be more damaging than what analysts often describe especially in a developing country like Nigeria. For a long time, money laundering has become another terror threatening the growth of the economy such that it drags the wheel of governance and economic development. Beyond this general assessment, money laundering is a factor being considered in the National Budget, fight against terrorism and foreign relations between Nigeria and other nations. This paper considers holistic effects of money laundering on the economy of Nigeria. It adopts the doctrinal approach of methodology in researching available primary and mostly secondary sources of data in the analysis of various effects such as manufacturing of domestic products, socio-economic, financial effects, political effects, oil and gas sector. The paper further considers many challenges encountered by the past and present administration in combating money laundering. It however suggests that government should take proactive measures to tackle the menace by daring to prosecute close political associates involved as a lesson to other persons that no stone will be left unturned in the fight against the menace.
Discussion on the Trend of China’s Commercial Banks Management: Based on the Influence of Financial Market Development  [PDF]
Miaomiao Lv
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.78086
Abstract: As the environment of commercial banks, the development of financial market has a profound impact on the commercial banks. In recent years, the continuous development of financial market is both an opportunity and a challenge for the commercial banking industry. This paper tries to analyze commercial bank business challenges brought about by the development of the financial market mainly from three aspects: the development of Internet banking rise, interest rates liberalization and deposit insurance system, financial industry mixed operation trend and takes it as a starting point to explore the trend of development of commercial bank management from the commercial bank organization structure, management mode and business development three aspects.
Nepalese Schoolchildren as Research Participants: Challenges in Qualitative Research  [PDF]
Ghanshyam Bishwakarma
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.51005
Abstract: The present research explores the potential methodological challenges in conducting qualitative fieldwork using schoolgirls in Nepal as participants. It particularly focuses on the logistic, academic, and social challenges that impact on the scholarly inquiry into aspects of schooling and the wider society in rural Nepal. The participants in this study were schoolgirls, and school drop-outs girls (12 - 16 years old), from Dalit community in Nepal. Schoolchildren, both in school and school drop-outs particularly girls, are an invaluable source of information on society and schooling. Although school-aged girls have the right to express their views, perceptions, opinions, and competencies, as much as adults do. However, their participation in research activities has been very rare in Nepal. This research applies various methodological tools to carry out this qualitative study in the school setting in Nepal and highlights the challenges associated with these methodologies, particularly the challenges related to confidentiality and interactions when using children as research participants.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis as Imitator of Skin Diseases and a Diagnostic Challenge  [PDF]
Khalifa E. Sharquie, Adil A. Noaimi, Banaz A. Saleh
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2018.83018
Abstract: Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) usually has a well clinical presentation that rarely confused with other dermatological diseases, but when it presents with atypical picture, it may be a diagnostic challenge to dermatologist. Objective: To record the cases of CL those have very unusual presentations or sites in the Iraqi patients that might be confused with other dermatoses. Patient and methods: This is a clinical descriptive study that has been performed in the outpatient of Department of Dermatology Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from January 2015-February 2017, where fifty six patients were enrolled in the study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 - 67 years old with median is 30 years, 32 males and 24 females with M:F ratio is 1.3:1, the diagnosis was confirmed by skin smear and/or biopsy. Results: Fifty six cases of CL with atypical presentations and unusual sites that categorized as follow: diffuse nodular 4 cases, paronychia like 1 case, sausage-like CL 4 cases, lupus vulgaris like 2 cases, rosacea like 1case, squamous cell carcinoma-like 3 cases, keratoacanthoma like 1 case, pyoderma gangrenosum-like 2 cases, erysipeloid like 1 case, B-cell lymphoma like 1 case, grouping pattern 1 case, panniculitis-like 2 cases, dermatitis like 2 cases, ecthyma like 1 cases, verruca like 1 case, keloid like 1
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