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This paper focused on
estimating the participation rate of care giving to elders. We used a theoretical
model frame that was in common use for analyzing activity in the labor market
and adjusted it for analyzing the care giving rate in elders. Using data of the
rate of start taking care and the rate of end taking care in elders from the
Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe we evaluated the rate of
\"caregivers\" in whole population at age over 50 and among males,
females, people in labor force and out of labor force. According to our results,
the lowest care rate is among men 16.8%, and the highest is among females
18.88%, while for whole population at age over 50, the care rate is 18.2%.
According to our findings, there is a very high end of care rate from treatment
in all population groups, pointing to the existence of a very large
substitution among caregivers, mainly among people not in labor force (76.2%).
Cultural competence in nursing provides an ideal avenue to meet the various needs of our patients while providing them with safe, competent care. “Racial and ethnic differences in family expectations or preferences for care are not yet well identified and cataloged, but they may uniquely affect individual ratings or experience with care” . The purpose of this article is to enlighten nurses as health care providers about cultural care in an effort to provide that safe, competent care. Many times patients present for care at hospitals and clinics with language barriers and preconceived ideas based on their own cultural beliefs and practices. It is ideal when we, as nurses have the ability to meet those needs in an effort to meet patient’s expectations and healthcare needs. In order to meet the diverse needs of our growing multi-cultural population, it is becoming apparent that we must not only provide care based on the physical needs, but the entire person’s needs relevant to their cultural beliefs regarding healthcare practices and the healing process.
Objective: To assess preoperative and postoperative spirometry values in patients undergoing lobectomy for sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. Method: A total of 20 patients (10 males) with history of treatment for tuberculosis and presenting with symptomatic sequelae (repeat infection or hemoptysis) who sought assistance at the chest surgery outpatient clinic between 11.09.07 and 04.02.10, were selected for the study. Only patients that met theeligibility criteria (symptomatic, submitted to tuberculosis treatment) were included in the study. The age of patients ranged from 15 to 56 years (mean: 35.75 years). The average treatment time for tuberculosis was 6 months and onset of symptoms occurred between 01 and 32 years after treatment. To assess the impact of surgery on the variables VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF and PEF preoperative values were compared with postoperative values at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month using the paired t test. The level of significance (α) applied for all tests was 5% where a value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 11 patients were treated because of recurrent infections and 9 because of haemoptysis. The most common lobectomy was right upper lobectomy (7 patients), followed by left upper lobectomy (6 patients), left lower lobectomy (6 patients), and right middle lobectomy (1 patient). There were no postoperative complications. There was no postoperative mortality. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that, at the 12th postoperative month, spirometric parameters of patients with tuberculosis sequelae submitted to lobectomy had returned to preoperative levels.
America spends more
on medical care than any other nation, with no noticeable difference in
results. It is commonly thought that this is a result of a defect in the
organization of medicine in the US, which can be repaired by “reform.” However,
medicine is a labor-intensive good and labor is more expensive in the US. We
show that these conditions will invariably lead to a higher price and a higher
percentage of GDP spent on medicine. Thus, while reforms may improve the
functioning of the health care sector, they are unlikely to have a major effect
on spending levels.