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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 250371 matches for " br>金相灿 "
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The key scientific problems in lake eutrophication studies
湖泊富营养化研究中的主要科学问题——代“湖泊富营养化研究”专栏序言

JIN Xiangcan,<br>金相
环境科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Eutrophication is one of the most serious environmental problems in Chinese lakes. Studies on cycling disorder of nutrient elements in watershed, occurring of blue-green algal blooms and their harmful effects on lake environments, degeneration and ecological restoration mechanisms of aquatic ecology are the main bases for lake eutrophication management and control.
Seasonal changes of P adsorption/desorption characteristics at the water-sediment interface in Meiliang Bay,Taihu Lake,China
太湖梅梁湾沉积物中磷吸附/解吸平衡特征的季节性变化

JIN Xiangcan,<br>金相
环境科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Seasonal changes of phosphorus adsorption/desorption were investigated by collecting overlying water and seasonal sediment samples from Meiliang Bay,Taihu Lake,China.The data were analyzed to determine the function change of sediment as "Source" and "Sink" in the different seasons.At the same time,seasonal changes of TP and Pfractions' concentration at the beginning and the end of the adsorption experiment were also carried out to find the most active Pfraction in this process.The effects of temperature on the Ptranslocation process were also measured and are discussed.The following conclusions were obtained:The sequence of concentrations of TPand phosphorus fractions in the different seasons was CSpring< CSummer
Effects of sediment adding ammonium on root morphology and nutrition absorption of Myriophyllum spicatum
外源NH+4对穗花狐尾藻根系形态和养分吸收的影响

jiaolixin,<br>焦立新,王圣瑞,金相
生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The root morphology, nutrition accumulation and dry biomass distribution of Myriophyllum spicatum from different treatment with ammonium chloride (SN1, SN2 and CK) adding were investigated using sediment\|water\|submerged macrophytes system in the greenhouse in static experiment condition. The results indicated that the taproot diameter (0.432-0.518 mm), taproot/lateral root ratio (1.50-4.39) of Myriophyllum spicatum increased with the increasing of ammonium contents in the sediment. Taproot total length per plant (31.64-171.67 cm ) was shorten significantly in high ammonium condition. Taproot numbers per plant in SN2 (8.17 piece) were lower than in SN1 (14.67 piece) and CK (14.33 piece) remarkably, while no significant difference between SN1 and CK. The total nitrogen contents of plant in the treatments (SN1 55.98 and SN2 55.19 mg/g) were significantly higher than that of CK (42.89 mg/g), while the total phosphorus contents of plant in the treatments (SN1 1.63 and SN2 1.53 mg/g) were significantly lower than that of CK (3.71 mg/g). The total plant dry biomass (168.17-405.81 mg/plant) and total plant phosphorus (0.25-1.51 mg/plant) increased with the increasing of sediment ammonium contents, while the rank order of the total plant nitrogen (9.12-21.08 mg/plant) was SN1>CK>SN2. The allocation ratios of total plant nitrogen and total plant phosphorus in leaf decreased, but those in root and stem increased significantly with the increasing of sediment ammonium contents.
黄河中游悬浮物理化特征的地域性差异分析
金相
地理科学 , 1986,
Abstract: 文章讨论了黄河中游悬浮物的主要理化性质,结果发现黄河干流悬浮物中蒙脱石含量相对高,粒级比较粗,有机质含量比较低下,阳离子代换量相应也少,相反支流汾谓河悬浮物中伊利石较高,粒级较细,有机质含量相对高,阳离子代换量也相应高。系统分析表明上述悬浮物的理化性质和流域土壤的理化性质相近,流域黄土和土壤理化性质的地域性差异支配着河流悬浮物理化特征的地域性差异。
温度对水华微囊藻及孟氏浮游蓝丝藻生长、光合作用及浮力变化的影响
金相
环境科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 通过批量培养实验,测定培养过程中藻的生物量、光合放氧速率及浮力等的变化,研究了2种典型水华蓝藻-水华微囊藻及孟氏浮游蓝丝藻在不同温度下的生长和光合作用特征及浮力调控的机制.结果表明,水华微囊藻在温度低于13℃时几乎不能生长,高于16℃能缓慢生长,且随着温度升高,生长速率增大;孟氏浮游蓝丝藻在温度为10℃时就能缓慢生长,当温度高于16℃时即能够较好生长;2种藻的生长速率在10~28℃范围内都随温度升高而增大.2种蓝藻在10℃以上均能进行光合作用,且在实验温度范围内(10~28℃)随温度的升高而增强.当温度从28℃转至13℃以下温度培养时,2种蓝藻的浮力下降明显,细胞内伪空胞、糖及蛋白质的变化表明,糖的积累使细胞密度增大是细胞浮力下降的主要原因;在72h之内,水华微囊藻和浮游蓝丝藻细胞内糖含量分别增加了2.2倍和2.5倍,这说明温度降低至13℃以下,水华微囊藻下沉趋于休眠,而孟氏游浮蓝丝藻则趋于底栖继续生长;温度升高至13℃以上,水华微囊藻趋于复苏和上浮,而孟氏浮游蓝丝藻趋于浮游.
太湖梅梁湾沉积物中磷吸附/解吸平衡特征的季节性变化
金相
环境科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 室内模拟研究了太湖梅梁湾4个季节沉积物在低磷湖水中的吸附/解吸特征,推测沉积物在各季节的"源"、"汇"转化过程,找出沉积物"源"、"汇"转化过程中最活跃的磷形态;同时通过对冬季沉积物进行不同温度的吸附/解吸热力学实验,探讨了温度对沉积物吸附/解吸磷过程的影响.研究结果表明:梅梁湾4个季节沉积物总磷及各组分磷含量大小关系为春<夏<冬<秋;夏季和秋季沉积物以释放为主,春季和冬季则以吸附为主;铁/铝磷是沉积物"源"、"汇"转化过程中较活跃的磷组分;沉积物对磷的吸附效率和平衡吸附量为春季最小,秋季最大;温度和沉积物磷含量对DIP吸附/解吸平衡浓度都有影响,吸附/解吸平衡浓度随温度的升高而增加,随沉积物磷含量的增加而减小.
湖泊富营养化研究中的主要科学问题——代“湖泊富营养化研究”专栏序言
金相
环境科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 湖泊富营养化是我国湖泊当前面临的最为突出的环境问题之一,入湖生源要素循环失衡,蓝藻水华暴发与成灾机理,湖泊水生态系统退化与修复机制,以及湖泊管理科学基础等均是我国湖泊富营养化防治研究中急待解决的科学问题与理论基础.
Influence of the conditions of batch flow on treating eutrophicated
间歇式运行对人工湿地处理富营养化湖水的影响

Nie Zhidan,NianYuegang,JinXiangcan,SongYingwei,<br>聂志丹,年跃刚,金相,宋英伟
环境工程学报 , 2007,
Abstract: 针对五里湖富营养化水体,进行了中试规模人工湿地间歇式运行与连续式运行处理效果的比较研究,现场试验采用0.8 m3/m2·d的水力负荷.研究表明,采用间歇进水方式增强了人工湿地的复氧能力,出水溶解氧(DO)含量为2.6~4.5 mg/L,较连续进水方式平均提高了51.06%.间歇式进水对TN和NH4 -N的去除影响较大,与连续进水方式相比去除率分别提高了51.5%和30.5%;而对NO3-N、TP和CODMn的去除影响较小.采用间歇式运行TN的出水浓度较连续式运行稳定,受季节变化和进水浓度的影响较小,出水浓度<2 mg/L;而间歇式运行对TP和CODMn出水浓度的稳定性影响不大.
Growth characteristics of Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria mougeotii in eutrophic lakes: Simulation experiments
铜绿微囊藻和孟氏颤藻在富营养化湖泊中生长特征的模拟研究

CHU Zhaosheng,JIN Xiancan,PANG Yan,<br>储昭升,金相,庞燕
环境科学学报 , 2006,
Abstract: 为了模拟富营养化状态下2种蓝藻在湖泊中的生长特征,采用大型室内湖泊模拟装置进行了模拟研究,并通过三角瓶实验以及光合作用速率的响应实验对模拟装置中藻的生长特征进行了分析.湖泊模拟装置中,铜绿微囊藻和孟氏颤藻在对数生长期的特征生长速率分别为0.43d-1和0.32d-1,但对数生长期很短,仅3~4d.在对数期后有一个很长的"线性期",即生物量随时间近似成线性增长.在氮、磷较为充分的条件下,由于较强的光合作用导致了水体pH的升高,以及生物量增高导致了藻的自遮蔽作用,使藻的生长容易出现碳源限制和光限制.受水下光的影响,2种藻细胞内叶绿素a含量在对数期内一直增大.随后颤藻细胞内叶绿素a含量又逐渐降低,而微囊藻细胞内叶绿素a含量仍保持较高的水平,其原因可能是微囊藻能适应更高的pH.
Nitrogen removal mechanism of constructed wetland
人工湿地的氮去除机理

LU Shao-Yong,JIN Xiang-Can,YU Gang,<br>卢少勇,金相,余刚
生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Eutrophication of lakes and aquatic systems deteriorate the ecosystem and economy. The causes and controls of eutrophication have attracted attentions worldwide, including China. Extensive research has been carried out on problems related to eutrophication in China. Nitrogen is one of the major nutriments contributing to the eutrophication in aquatic environments. The external nitrogen load (including point source and nonpoint source) is an important component of the total water-pollutant load. The traditional wastewater treatment technology, which lacks in integrated collection systems, poses excessive investment costs on the control of nonpoint pollution. The constructed wetland is an important technology to reduce the external nitrogen load, especially from the nonpoint source. It is capable of effectively removing nitrogen and handling a high pollutant load; moreover, it is friendly to eco-system and requires low investment costs. Thus the constructed wetland is especially fit for controlling the eutrophication. Illustrating the nitrogen removal mechanisms in constructed wetland has an important meaning on the eutrophication in aquatic systems. The nitrogen removal mechanism in the constructed wetland with a leak-proof layer consists of volatilization, ammonification, nitrification/denitrification, plant uptake, and matrix adsorption, is reviewed in this paper. In a constructed wetland without a leak-proof layer, the nitrogen exchange with the surrounding environments has significant effects on the nitrogen removal rate. Generally, nitrification/denitrification is the major nitrogen removal mechanism in constructed wetlands. Volatilization is insignificant when the pH of the wastewater is less than 7.5. Volatilization is significant when the pH is higher than 9.3. Nitrification/denitrification is the major nitrogen removal mechanism in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater. Under low influent loads, suitable climate conditions, and appropriate plant species, the plant-harvest process maybe the major nitrogen removal pathway. Well-managed artificial wetlands usually show a better nitrogen-removing efficiency than do natural wetlands. Sound system designs (e.g., the medium configuration, the arrangement of helophytes, and the opitimization of water distribution and collection) have a direct impact on the nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands. Reasonable operations and maintenances, such as the effective control of the water level, the correct helophyte cultivation, and the sound helophyte harvest can effectively improve the nitrogen removal in a constructed wetland.
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