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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9200 matches for " bio-oil "
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Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil from Sugarcane Straw and Sugarcane in Natura  [PDF]
Josilaine A. C. Durange, Margareth R. L. Santos, Marcelo M. Pereira, Luiz A. P. Fernandes Jr., Marcio N. Souza, Anderson N. Mendes, Liena M. Mesa, Caio G. Sánchez, Elisabete M. S. Sanchez, Juan M. M. Pérez, Nakédia M. F. Carvalho
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42A002

Under the renewable energy context, sugarcane biomass pyrolysis has been growing as a convenient route to produce bio-oil, which can be set into the chemical industry and refineries as building blocks or combustion fuel. In this work sugarcane straw was submitted to direct pyrolysis in a fluidized bed pilot plant at 500°C, in presence of air. Sugarcane in natura was also pyrolysed as a model for comparison, in order to determine the viability of processing different sources of raw biomass. The physicochemical characterization of the biomass precursors as well as of the bio-oils was also carried out, which points both biomass feedstocks as suitable for bio-oil production in terms of viscosity, surface tension, density and acidity. The bio-oil obtained from sugarcane in natura presented higher carbon and hydrogen content as well as lower oxygen content. On the other hand, the metal content is higher in the bio-oil obtained from sugarcane straw, in special the iron and potassium contents were 807 ppm and 123 ppm against 27 ppm and 1 ppm in the bio-oil from sugarcane in natura. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds as well as carbohydrates scaffolds were identified as the main components of the bio-oil. GC-MS analyses showed aromatic products from lignine fragmentation and free sugars and sugar derivatives.

Production of Bio-Oil from Pyrolysis of Olive Biomass with/without Catalyst  [PDF]
Falah F. Bani Hani, Mohammad M. Hailat
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.64043
Abstract: In this study olive biomass was pyrolysis in a 400 cm3 stainless steel reactor. It was externally heated by an electrical furnace in which the temperature is measured by a thermocouple inserted into the bed. The effect of the catalyst ratio to the biomass (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40%) on the pyrolysis yield was investigated and compared with the uncatalyzed pyrolysis yield product. The bio-oil products yield from the pyrolysis process was found to increase as the catalyst ratio increased. The bio-oil yield from the olive oil-cake, which was 36.1% without the catalyst, reached the maximum value of 39.3% on using activated catalyst at 10% by weight. The gas products yield was found to increase upon using catalyst compared to the non-catalytic pyrolysis. The reduction in the bio-oil yield product was accompanied with a significant reduction in the oxygen content. The pyrolysis oil was examined using chromatographic analysis techniques. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive oil cake might be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock.
Separation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil by Supercritical CO2 Extraction  [PDF]
Jinghua Wang, Hongyou Cui, Shuqin Wei, Shuping Zhuo, Lihong Wang, Zhihe Li, Weiming Yi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2010.12015
Abstract: Supercritical CO2 extraction was employed to separate simulated and real bio-oils. Effects of extraction pressure, temperature and adsorbents on distribution coefficient (or enrichment coefficient) of five representative compounds were investigated using a simulated bio-oil, which was composed of acetic acid (AC), propanoic acid (PA), furfural (FR), acetylacetone (AA) and 2-methoxyphenol (MP). The distribution coefficients of AA, FR and MP between super-critical CO2 phase and liquid phase were bigger than 1.5, while those of AC and PA characteristic of relatively strong polarity were less than 1. Temperature and pressure also had impacts on the distribution coefficients of AA, FR and MP, especially remarkable for AA. The extraction of simulated bio-oil spiked on three adsorbents shows that adsorbents influence extraction efficiency and selectivity by changing intermolecular forces. High extraction pressure and relative low temperature are beneficial to reduce the water content in the extract. In addition, the feasibility of supercritical CO2 extraction of real bio-oil was examined. After extraction in the extraction fraction total ketones increased from 14.1% to 21.15~25.40%, phenols from 10.74% to 31.32~41.25%, and aldehydes from 1.92% to 3.95~8.46%, while the acids significantly dropped from 28.15% to 6.92~12.32%, and water from 35.90% to 6.64~4.90%. In view of extraction efficiency, the optimal extraction temperature was determined to be 55℃. Extraction efficiency of the real bio-oil increased with rising pressure. The maximal extraction efficiency of real bio-oil on water-free basis could reach to 88.6%. After scCO2 extraction, the calorific value and stability of the extract fraction evidently increased and the acidity slight decreased with nearly 100% volatility below 140℃, suggesting potentially applicable as substitute for engine fuel.
Overview of Bio-Oil from Sewage Sludge by Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction Technology  [PDF]
Jing Liu, Xiaoxiong Zhang, Guanyi Chen
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.24017
Abstract: Sewage sludge is an unavoidable secondary pollution produced in the process of sewage treatment. At present traditional methods of treating sludge (e.g. landfill, incineration or land application) have some disadvantages and shortages. Direct thermochemical liquefaction of sludge is a new treatment method, which has the advantage of both treatment and energy recovery. Research progress and application prospect of sludge liquefaction technology are widely reported, typical liquefaction process with bio-oil production and its main influencing factors are introduced. Besides, the devel- opment of this process is illustrated, and resource and energy recovery of this technology are pointed out to be the ten- dency of sludge treatment in the future.
Bio-Oil Extracted of Wet Biomass of the Microalga Monoraphidium sp. for Production of Renewable Hydrocarbons  [PDF]
Yordanka R. Cruz, Gisel Ch. Díaz, Viviane de S. Borges, Andreina Z. F. Leonett, René G. Carliz, Vinicius Rossa, Vitor M. E. S. Silva, Carolina Vieira Viegas, Donato A. G. Aranda, Luciano B. Oliveira
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.71005
Abstract: Renewable hydrocarbons refer to fuels consisting of hydrocarbons of 10 to 20 carbon atoms, produced from biomass, and free of oxygen. Hydrocracking, hydrodeoxygenation and hydrotreatment processes for the production of renewable hydrocarbons are described in the literature. Microalgae have been targeted in recent years to synthesize biomass that can be used in the production of biofuels, such as renewable hydrocarbons, biodiesel or ethanol second generation. In this context the lineage Monoraphidium sp. was selected from previous ecophysiological studies and its potential to produce lipids to develop this research related with the extraction of the bio-oil of the wet biomass of Monoraphidium sp. through heat treatment. Consecutively the bio-oil was used as raw material for the production of hydrocarbons through hydrocracking and hydrodeoxygenation processes (HDO) as: decarbonylation, decarboxylation, dehydratation, with in situ production of hydrogen from liquid-phase reforming of glycerol. The reactions were carried out under two different temperature conditions, 350°C and 300°C, respectively, for 1 h and using ruthenium alumina catalyst (Ru/Al2O3). The results showed the bio-oil processing route at a temperature of 350°C promising for the production of hydrocarbons achieving a conversion of 81.54%.
Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Residues in a Fixed Bed Tubular Reactor  [PDF]
Mohammed Isah Yakub, Abakr Yousif Abdalla, Kabir Kazi Feroz, Yusuf Suzana, Alshareef Ibraheem, Soh Aik Chin
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.34026

Searching for alternative energy sources continues to grow in recent times due to the fear of energy insecurity in the near future and environmental and sociopolitical issues associated with the use of fossil fuel. Among the renewable energy sources, biomass is the only source that has carbon in its building blocks which can be processed to liquid fuel. In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm residues (trunk, frond and empty fruit bunch) was carried out in a fixed bed tubular reactor under nitrogen atmosphere at 30 mL/min, 30?C/min heating rate and 600?C reaction temperature. Pyrolysis products (bio-oil, bio-char and non-condensable gas) were characterized. Water content, acidity (pH), higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of the bio-oil varied between 39.28 - 43 wt%, 2.92 - 3.20, 19.29 - 21.92 MJ/kg and 58.47 - 59.85 wt% respectively. Low pH, highwater and oxygen contents in the oil make it unsuitable for being used as fuel and therefore require upgrading. Scanning electron microscopy and ultimate analysis of the bio-char suggests that it is a porous material and consists mainly carbon between 82.22 - 84.96 wt% and has HHV in the range of 25.98 - 27.65 MJ/kg. This may be used as solid biofuel, adsorbent and source of carbon. High percentage of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed in the non-condensable gas which may be processed to transportation fuel via Fisher-Tropsch process. Oil palm residues represent good source of renewable energy when all the pyrolysis products are efficiently utilized.

Biopitch produced from eucalyptus wood pyrolysis liquids as a renewable binder for carbon electrode manufacture
Rocha, J.D.;Coutinho, A.R.;Luengo, C.A.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322002000200002
Abstract: interest in biomass as a clean source of fuel, chemicals and materials is growing fast. what is attractive about biomass is its renewability and that it is co2 balanced and sulfur-free. biomass pyrolysis produces charcoal, bio-oil and gases in different proportions, depending on the technology and raw material used. in this study biopitch, a substitute for fossil pitches in electrodes, was produced from bio-oil distillation in bench-scale equipment. biopitch and charcoal were mixed and thermically modified to give prebaked electrodes. the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the biopitch and final electrodes were measured and compared with those of coal tar and petroleum materials. despite their similar application, biomaterials are structurally and chemically different from minerals. the oxygen content in biopitch is ca 20 wt% and in mineral pitches it is no more than 2 wt%. characterization experiments for electrode samples measured electrical resistivity, young's modulus, rupture strength, density, porosity and proximate analysis.
The role of phenols from bagasse vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil in cupper sulfured ore flotation
Brossard, L. E.;Beraldo, A. L.;Cortez, L. A. B.;Brossard Jr, L. E.;Maury, E. D.;Brossard, C. O.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322008000400009
Abstract: vacuum pyrolysis bagasse bio-oil collected in a series of sequential fractions was analyzed for total percentage of phenols and levoglucosan components. it was established that the ratio total phenols- to-levoglucosan could be used as an indicator of the performance of alkaline solutions of bio-oil fractions (sabo) when they are used as foaming agents to benefit flotation of sulfured cupper minerals. a high total phenol-to-levoglucosan ratio results in high percentages of cu in cupper flotation concentrates, lcu. a closer look at the role of individual phenols reveals that p-cresol is the main phenol, although not the only one, responsible for the observed behavior. additionally it was noted that rather high doses of these foaming agents must be used to obtain desirable results in flotation processes. a production cost estimate allows consideration of sabo as an alternative to others commercial foaming agents, especially if an optimization study reduces doses of sabo.
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2012,
Abstract: biofuels were obtained by fast pyrolysis of palm oilwastes (elaeis guineensis jacq.) in a free fall reactor. previously, palm oil wastes were dried and sieved and then were fed to the reactor. as pyrolysis products, char, non-condensable gas and bio-oil, a condensed liquid composed by alcohols, carboxylic acids, alkanes and aromatics, were obtained. the experiments were carried out at temperature range 500-700°c. the highest bio-oil yield, 23.3%, was obtained at 600°c. the gas compositional analysis showed co2,720%, h0,703 % , ch1,289%, co 22 4 2,472 % and n2 for the non-condensable gas produced at 600°c. the highest gas yield was obtained at 700°c but bio-oil yield was 14.9%. results indicate that temperature has an important effect on the product yields and composition. a future step will be an economical analysis in order to evaluate the possibility of using non-condensable gas as energy source for pyrolysis reactor.
Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel
Qiang Lu,Jian Zhang,XiFeng Zhu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0499-7
Abstract: Bio-oil is a new liquid fuel but very acidic. In this study, bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk and two bio-oil/diesel emulsions with bio-oil concentrations of 10 wt% and 30 wt% were prepared. Tests were carried out to determine their corrosion properties to four metals of aluminum, brass, mild steel and stainless steel at different temperatures. Weight loss of the metals immersed in the oil samples was recorded. The chemical states of the elements on metal surface were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that mild steel was the least resistant to corrosion, followed by aluminum, while brass exhibited slight weight loss. The weight loss rates would be greatly enhanced at elevated temperatures. Stainless steel was not affected under any conditions. After corrosion, increased organic deposits were formed on aluminum and brass, but not on stainless steel. Mild steel was covered with many loosely attached corrosion materials which were easy to be removed by washing and wiping. Significant metal loss was detected on surface of aluminum and mild steel. Zinc was etched away from brass surface, while metallic copper was oxidized to Cu2O. Increased Cr2O3 and NiO were presented on surface of stainless steel to form a compact passive protection film. The two emulsions were less corrosive than the bio-oil. This was due to the protection effect of diesel. Diesel was the continuous phase in the emulsions and thus could limit the contact area between bio-oil and metals.
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