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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 359147 matches for " bio-control<br>分类,毒素,生物防治 "
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A review on the research of nematophagous fungal species
食线虫真菌资源研究概况

ZHANG Ying,LI Guo-Hong,ZHANG Ke-Qin,
张颖
,李国红,张克勤

菌物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Nematophagous fungi are those fungi with the capacity to capture, parasitise or paralyse nematodes at all stages of their life cycles. They play an important role as antagonists of plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes, therefore, there is a great interest in using these fungi as model samples in adaptative evolution researches and as biological control agents against parasitic nematodes. This review presents progress made in the field of fungal antagonists of parasitic nematodes, including trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, toxin-producing fungi and opportunistic fungi.
Prospects of Development of A Preparation for bio-control of Aphid in chrysanthemum
杭白菊蚜虫生物防治制剂的开发前景

Chu Jianjun,
褚建君

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2002,
Abstract: This paper focuses on the prospects a preparation of for the of bio-control aphid in chrysanthemum, in which the history and farmers' practice in aphid bio-control are reviewed and the technical targets of the preparation are suggested, and in the meantime, the significance of pest bio-control in green agriculture, especially in the development of Chinese medicinal herbs and the sustainable development of chrysanthemum production in Tongxiang Municipality is discussed.
Effects of bio-organic fertilizers fermented with antagonistic strains on growth enhancement and control of bacterial wilt disease of eggplant
拮抗菌发酵的生物有机肥对茄子生长和青枯病的防治效果

QIAO Huan-ying,DING Chuen-yu,SHEN Qi-rong,CHEN Wei,
乔焕英
,丁传雨,沈其荣,陈 巍

土壤 , 2012,
Abstract: Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of two new bio-organic fertilizers (BIO-36 and BIO-23) fermented with different antagonistic strains on plant growth and the suppression on the disease. The results were as follows. (1) Application of BIO-36 and BIO-23 significantly increased fresh weights of eggplant seedlings after grown in nursery cups for 30 days. BIO-36 showed most distinct root growth enhancement, being 8.48 to 8.69 times higher in total root length, 2.70 to 2.77 times higher in total surface root area, and 15.5 to 18 times higher in root volume than control. (2) Plant height, shoot and root biomass in the treatments of BIO-36 and BIO-23 were significantly increased after grown for 35 days in the big pots, in which soil inoculated with the pathogen and seedlings were transplanted from nursery cups, while disease incidence of the bacterial wilt was significantly reduced to 4.1% for BIO-36 and 8.3% for BIO-23 in contrast to 91.7% for control. (3) BIO-36 and BIO-23 increased rhizosphere fungi by 4.1 to 4.6 and 3.89 to 4.64 times and rhizosphere actinomycetes by 3.38 to 3.78 times and 3.08 to 3.47 times, respectively, as compared with control, but did not significantly change bacterial counts. However, BIO-36 and BIO-23 reduced the counts of Ralstonia solanacearum in rhizosphere by almost one order of magnitude when compared with control. Therefore, the application of the bio-organic fertilizers could effectively control the bacterial wilt disease and promote plant growth of eggplant.
食线虫真菌资源研究概况
张颖,李国红,张克勤
菌物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: 食线虫真菌是指寄生、捕捉、定殖和毒害线虫的一类真菌,这类真菌是自然界中线虫种群控制的重要因子,也是动植物病害生物防治的重要研究材料,具有特殊的研究意义和经济价值。目前全世界共报道700余种食线虫真菌,包括捕食线虫真菌380余种,线虫内寄生真菌120余种,产毒真菌270余种和大量机会真菌。针对丰富的食线虫真菌资源,近年来世界各国尤其是中国科学家对其进行了广泛研究,在捕食线虫真菌资源的分类、系统进化、生态分布、有性无性联系等方面的研究取得了重要进展,在线虫内寄生真菌侵染宿主的方式及产毒真菌的次生代谢产物挖掘等方面也进行了广泛研究,文章综述了以上研究进展并简述了食线虫真菌资源的生物防治应用概况。
基于菜粕有机肥筛选番茄青枯病高效生防菌的研究
韦中,胡洁,董月,杨天杰,沈其荣,徐阳春
南京农业大学学报 , 2015, DOI: 10.7685/j.issn.1000-2030.2015.03.011
Abstract: [目的] 菜粕有机肥(简称RC)是生物有机肥生产中常用的营养载体,本研究旨在以RC为营养源筛选可高效抑制番茄青枯病致病菌(Ralstonia solanacearum,青枯菌)的生防菌株材料,以提高生物有机肥防控番茄青枯病的效果。[方法] 分别采用营养琼脂(NA)和RC培养基,从番茄根际土中分离和筛选青枯菌拮抗菌株,并于温室条件下测定拮抗菌与RC制成的生物有机肥对番茄青枯病的防治效果。[结果] 用NA分离的菌株中NA-5在NA平板上对青枯菌的抑菌圈直径最大(29.0 mm),但在RC平板上抑菌能力微弱;而用RC分离的菌株RC-14在RC平板上对青枯菌的抑菌圈直径较大(24.0 mm)。施用NA-5和RC-14与RC二次发酵制成的生物有机肥BOF5和BOF14的生防效果显著高于单施拮抗菌,BOF14的生防效率达75.9%,显著高于BOF5。BOF14处理根际青枯菌的数量比BOF5低1个数量级。通过形态和16S rRNA基因序列同源性分析,初步鉴定RC-14菌株为土芽孢杆菌属(Geobacillus sp.)。[结论] 菌株RC-14可能通过利用RC中营养物质产生大量拮抗物质进而抑制番茄根际青枯菌的生长,降低了青枯病发病率。目前尚无Geobacillus sp.菌用于防治青枯病的报道,说明基于营养载体的筛菌思路可以获得新的生防菌资源。
[Objectives] Rapeseed cake compost(RC)is an important nutrient carrier for biocontrol microorganisms in the production of bio-organic fertilizer(BOF). To enhance BOF control efficiency, herein we are aiming to screen bacterial strains that efficiently inhibit Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of bacterial wilt of tomato, by using RC as the sole nutrients. [Methods] Bacterial antagonists were selected from tomato rhizosphere soils on nutrient agar(NA)and RC(8% RC in water)plates. Greenhouse assay was carried out to evaluate the efficiencies of bacterial antagonists fortified with RC on the suppression of R.solanacearum. [Results] Antagonistic strain NA-5 isolated from NA plate performed best in inhibiting R.solanacearum growth on NA plate with an inhibition zone diameter of 29.0 mm, while weak inhibition effect was observed on RC plate. Interestingly, strain RC-14 isolated from RC plates showed a remarkable inhibition zone diameter of 24 mm on RC plate. Greenhouse results showed that both NA-5 and RC-14 fortified BOF(coded as BOF5 and BOF14, respectively)significantly reduced disease incidences. BOF14 had significant higher biocontrol efficiency(75.9%)than BOF5. The R.solanacearum population in the rhizosphere soil of BOF14 treatment was significantly lower than BOF5 and other treatments(soil amended with RC, biocontrol agents or nothing). Based on the results of morphologic characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain RC-14 was preliminarily identified as Geobacillus sp. [Conclusions] Our results clearly demonstrated that using this screen strategy can obtain novel potential biocontrol agents, as little information was found about application of Geobacillus sp.for biocontrol of R.solanacearum. Geobacillus sp.strain RC-14 might produce more antibiotics against R.solanacearum in tomato rhizosphere when RC was taken as the nutrient carrier
Inhibitive effects on Microcystis aeruginosa by Artemisia lavandulaefoli and its three organic solvents extracts
野艾蒿及其有机提取物对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制作用

XU Fuqing,HE Wei,ZHENG Xing,ZHANG Weihao,CAI Weiwei,TANG Qian,
徐芙清
,何伟,郑星,张维昊,蔡伟伟,唐倩

生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: the inhibitive effects of three terrestrial Compositae plants, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Conyza Canadensis and Chrysanthemum morifolium on the blue algae were compared by co-cultivation with Microcystic aeruginosa. Results showed that Artemisia lavandulaefolia and Conyza canadensis accommodate to water cultivation, Artemisia lavandulaefolia and Chrysanthemum morifolium (rotted during the last three days) had the most inhibitive potential, with the inhibition ratios to algae (inoculation concentration 2.0 × 10~6 cells/ml) is 93.3% and 90.8% respectively, to algae (inoculation concentration 4.0 10~6 cells/ml)is 89.3% and 79.2% on the 10~(th) day. The active compounds from dry powder of Artemisia lavandulaefolia were extracted by three kinds of organic solvents with different polarities and all the three extracts (solvents removed) had significant inhibitive effect. Among them, ethyl acetate extract was the strongest, with 0.83g/L extract that will reach up to 100% inhibition ratio by calculation. Result showed that A. lavandulaefolia, which grew well in the aquatic environment, might have a great potential to be applied to treat algae bloom and control the eutrophication of water.
海洋藻类病毒多样性研究的现状与展望
Advance in Research on Diversity of Marinephycovirus
 [PDF]

陈章然, 郑伟, 郑天凌
Advances in Geosciences (AG) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/AG.2012.23026
Abstract: 作为海洋生态系统中的重要成员,藻类病毒在微生物环、生物地球化学循环、群落结构及多样性等方面起着重要作用。因为病毒在治理赤潮藻华问题方面具有诸多优势,所以利用藻类病毒治藻已成为一个热点的研究方向。目前已分离鉴定出许多种类的藻类病毒,并且人们对藻类病毒的实际应用也进行了一定的探讨,发现病毒在实际的生态系统中作用比较复杂。于是,针对藻类病毒生态的研究也越来越多。众所周知,藻类病毒的遗传多样性极其丰富,但其分布是否具有全球性,如何对其进行有效的检测和分析等都是国际上的研究热点。本综述就近年来国内外对藻类病毒研究的相关进展和本实验室开展的相关研究情况进行了概述,尤其对藻类病毒的生态分布、遗传多样性、研究中所涉及的靶基因及主要的分析方法进行了总结,提出海洋藻类病毒的研究展望。旨在为藻类病毒生态学、赤潮生物防治提供参考。
Phycovirus, as an important member in the marine ecosystem, is playing a greatly prominent role in the mi- crobial loop, biogeochemical cycling, community population and diversity. Because of the numerous advantages of us- ing virus to regulate the red-tide and the water bloom, it has become a hot research orientation that people adopted algae virus to control the algae. Nowadays, there were already many algae virus that had been isolated and identified and sci- entists also have some research regarding to their practical use, finding that the effect that viruses have on the practical ecosysystem is extremelycomplex. So focus was put on the virus zoology. It is known that the genetic diversity of phy- covirus is extremely high, butseeking the way to consider its worldwide distribution and some efficient ways to detect and analysis it has become a global research hotspot. This article introduces the recent research progress of algae virus related with the ecological distribution, geneticdistribution, correlative target genes and frequently-used analytical pro- cedure and makes some prospects of phycovirus, hoping to provide some references for the research in the ecology of phycovirus and the biological control of red-tide.
Biological control: using biodiversity to protect biodiversity
生物防治利用生物多样性保护生物多样性

Ding Jianqing,Fu Weidong Institute of Biological Control,Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences,Beijing,
丁建清
,付卫东

生物多样性 , 1996,
Abstract: This paper discussed the relationship between biological control of pests and conservation of biodiversity, pointing out that biodiversity was the source of biological control agents, and in turn biological control of pests played an important role in conservation of biodiversity. It reported briefly the diversity of natural enemies and their host specificity in natural and agricultural ecosystem, and the roles of biological control in management of exotic species as well as conservation of endangered species and habitats. The authors also emphasized that international exchange of natural enemy resources should be widely supported and the code of conduct for the import and release of biological control agents should be earlier established in order to implement more safe and effective biological control programs.
A new species of Pythium isolated from mosquito larvae and its ITS region of rDNA
分离自蚊幼虫的腐霉一新种及其rDNA的ITS区段分析

SU Xiao-Qing,
苏晓庆

菌物学报 , 2006,
Abstract: During the course of an outdoor experiment of mosquito biocontrol, a new strain of fungus was isolated from infected mosquito larvae, and identified as a new species of Pythium according to its morphological features as well as its DNA sequences of rDNA ITS region. Type specimen (dried culture) is deposited in HMAS, Beijing.
Advances in the study of endophytes and their effects on control of plant diseases
植物内生菌及其防治植物病害的研究进展

SHI Jing-Ying,CHEN Wei-Xin,LIU Ai-Yuan,
石晶盈
,陈维信,刘爱媛

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Recent advances in the study of endophytic bacteria and endophytic fungi in plants and their effects on biological control of plant diseases were reviewed. Endophytes with many varieties are widely distributed and almost exist in all aquatic and terrestrial plants. Now endophytic fungi have been observed in gramineous plants of 80 generas and 290 species and more than 120 species of endophytic bacteria have been found in some agronomic and cash crops in the world. The host plants infected by endophytes usually grow fast, have a strong resistance to adversity and diseases, and are immune to animal attack compared to uninfected plants. Therefore endophytes-infected plants are more competitive than uninfected ones in adverse circumstances. The mechanism whereby endophytes act as biological control agents is that endophytes inhibit pathogen growth by producing antibiotics, hydrolases, plant growth regulators and alkaloids, competing with pathogen for nutrition, enhancing resistance of host plants to diseases and inducing system resistance. The techniques of isolating, screening and detecting endophytes, approaches of controlling plant diseases by endophytes such as artifical inoculation of endophytes to plant, and application of antibiotics produced by endophytes, and utilization of endophytes as vectors in gene engineering were also reviewed. In addition, prospects and problems about endophytes as biological control agents were discussed. Many factors such as ecology, pathology and morphology should be considered in using endophytes as biological agents in the field.
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