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Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of childbearing age which is associated with STI/HIV and adverse birth outcomes. The Main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of BV among women of reproductive age in Thika. Methods: Between July 2010 and February 2011, 193 women of reproductive age (18 - 49 years) were enrolled from family planning and ante-natal clinics in Thika District Hospital, Kenya. The study was descriptive cross sectional in which organisms were identified from vaginal specimens using culture, biochemical testing and Nugent score method. Statistical analyses included conventional descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis using regression. Results: Of one hundred and ninety three specimens, 9.3% were Mobiluncus isolates, 23.0% Bacteriodes species and 67.7% Gardnerella vaginalis. Among the study participants, 77.7% had non-classical BV with a score of 7 - 8 while 22.3% classical BV with a score of 9 - 10 indicating complete depletion of Lactobacillus species. Whiff test was positive for 89.1% (74) of the 83 patients with BV. Though, 32.5% of women with BV had a vaginal pH of more than 4.5, only 66.0% of women fulfilling the criteria of BV had a characteristic discharge. Conclusions: In this population, the prevalence of BV was relatively high when compared with other community settings. BV was associated with condom use and multiple sexual partners. Further research is needed to understand their role in BV and the socioeconomic context surrounding the condition in Kenya.