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Relationships as Regulators  [PDF]
Tiffany Field
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.36066
Abstract: This paper reviews the Hofer (1984, 1996) and Field (1985, 1994) models on relationships as regulators, suggesting that relationships regulate optimal stimulation and thereby modulate arousal levels and attenuate stress. In these models, the behavioral, physiological and biochemical rhythms of individuals become synchronized within close relationships like mother-infant and peer relationships both in human and animal species, and they become more coordinated over time, with some potentially remaining stable, much like zeitgebers. Hofer supports his model by data on infant rat separation stress and Field describes “psychobiological attunement” between human infants and their mothers and between young peers. This review revisits the “relationships as regulators” model, summarizing studies on relationships between non-depressed versus depressed mothers and their infants, between infant, preschool and preadolescent friends versus acquaintances and between happily versus unhappily married couples. Although some behavioral and physiological data support Hofer’s and Field’s “relationships as regulators” model, many studies on relationships have focused instead on the effects of separation or loss. Both Hofer and Field suggest that the real question is “what was there about the relationship that was then missing after the loss?” Future research could address the question of potential mediators and underlying mechanisms for relationships becoming regulators. Potential mediators are explored here including mirror neurons, affective priming, imitation and empathy. The individuals’ rhythms and the attraction to others’ rhythms as regulators may be an epigenetic programming phenomenon, suggesting both genetic and early experience effects that endure across development.
Effects of Weight Consciousness, Circadian Arousal, and Depression on Young Women’s Memory  [PDF]
Christie Chung, Frishta Sharifi, Sara Harris
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27112
Abstract: Weight consciousness has been found to significantly affect women’s cognitive performance. In the present study, the effects of circadian arousal and depression were investigated by examining the relationship between young women’s weight consciousness and memory performance. College women were tested on a picture recall task consisting of neutral and weight-related pictures. Participants were categorized into morning, evening, and intermediate types, and were tested either in the morning or late afternoon/evening (peak and non-peak testing times, or control). Our results showed that participants who were weight conscious were also more depressed. When tested at non-peak times, depressed participants recalled significantly more weight-related pictures than neutral pictures, while non-depressed participants did not show this recall pattern. These results suggest that young women with depression are less likely to inhibit memory of weight-related pictures when tested at their non-peak times of the day.
Enhancing Effects of Post-Learning Stress on Memory  [PDF]
Mingming Lin, Yoshihiko Tanno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.35059
Abstract: To investigate the enhancing effect of post-learning stress on memory, we requested 38 Japanese undergraduates to perform a learning task that involved positive, negative, and neutral words with controlled arousal and subsequently assigned them to a stress group (exposed to acute white noise) or a control group. After a 10-min filler task, we administered a delayed free recall test and a recognition test. We found that exposure to acute stress after learning significantly enhanced recognition memory of words, but found no differences in memory scores for stimuli of varying valence. We accordingly propose that post-learning stress, though enhancing memory performance, may not depend on word valence when stimulus arousal is controlled. This is the first study to find that post-learning stress enhances memory after a short delay, and it has several implications with regard to traumatic memories in stress-related disorders.
The Effect of Food Images on Mood and Arousal Depends on Dietary Histories and the Fat and Sugar Content of Foods Depicted  [PDF]
Gregory J. Privitera, Danielle E. Antonelli, Heather E. Creary
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31001

Background: While brain imaging studies show that reward regions in the human brain that regulate reward-guided behavior and integrate sensory modalities of smell, taste, and texture respond preferentially to high calorie foods, few studies account for dietary histories or account for recent behavioral evidence showing preferential responding for fruits (a low calorie food that tastes sweet). To address these concerns, the present study tested the hypothesis that images of high/low fat and sugar foods, even sugary foods that are low calorie (i.e., fruits), will enhance emotional responsiveness and that these changes may be related to dietary histories with fat and sugar intake. Method: Participants were shown 4 sets of 15 food images with each food image automatically timed every 9 s to transition to a new food image; participant pre-post mood and arousal was measured. The 4 sets of food images were high fat-high sugar (HFHS; desserts), high fat-low sugar (HFLS; fried foods), low fat-high sugar (LFHS; fruits), or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; vegetables) foods. To account for dietary histories, participants also completed estimated daily intake scales (EDIS) for sugar and fat. Results: Mood and arousal significantly increased in all groups, except Group LFLS, and even in a group that was low calorie but shown foods that taste sweet, i.e., Group LFHS. Interestingly, changes in arousal, but not mood, were dependent on participant histories with sugar and fat intake. Conclusion: Changes in emotional responsiveness to food images were nutrient-specific, which can be a more detailed level of analysis for assessing responsiveness to food images. Also, participant histories with sugar and fat should be taken into account as these histories can explain the changes in arousal observed here.

Expressing Food through Art: Evidence for a Nutrient-Specific Effect on Mood  [PDF]
Gregory J. Privitera, Brianne K. Moshaty, Frank C. Marzullo, Melissa L. Misenheimer
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32016

Background: Brain imaging studies show evidence of selective brain reward responses to high calorie foods. Behavioral studies extend this research by showing that such foods can enhance emotions, even for sweet-tasting low calorie foods (i.e., fruits). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that participants will show more positive emotional change when drawing pictures of foods that are high fat or taste sweet compared to bitter-tasting foods—as a possible behavioral intervention for enhancing mood. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to one of four art groups: high fat-high sugar (HFHS; stimulus food: cupcakes), high fat-low sugar (HFLS; stimulus food: pizza), low fat-high sugar (LFHS; stimulus food: strawberries), or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; stimulus food: peppers). Participants used three colors (red, green, black) in their art, were required to use all three colors, and told that the colors they use must reflect actual colors that are natural for the food depicted. Participants drew images of a stimulus food and prepost measures of mood and arousal were recorded. Results: Consistent with the hypothesis, the results show that drawing pictures of high fat foods (cupcakes, pizzas) and a food that tastes sweet (strawberries) results in greater increases in mood compared to drawing a bitter-tasting food (peppers). Changes in mood were independent of BMI, daily sugar intake, daily fat intake, arousal, and hunger. Conclusion: These results extend a growing body of biobehavioral research on the positive impact of food images on mood by showing that this impact can be applied to enhance mood when expressing food images through art.

Decision-Making in Foreign Language Reduces Emotional Arousal  [PDF]
Josef N. Lazar, Atar Stern, Ran Cohen
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.519220
Abstract: The study of bilingual’s qualities suggests that their decision-making process might differ in both languages. A recent research by Keysar, Hayakawa & An (2012) investigated the phenomenon of reduction in emotional reactivity in the second language on decision-making process, especially amongst bilinguals who acquired their second language later in life, often in a more formal setting (Pavlenko, 2005). This research intended to show a more convincing argument regarding this phenomenon by checking the participants’ physiological arousal during the decision processes, using three physiological measures (Electrocardiogram, Galvanic Skin Response and Electroencephalogram). In congruence with the detachment effect theory, our hypothesis is that when bilinguals think in their foreign language, less emotional reactivity will be shown. The participants (N = 69) are students from Tel-Hai academic college. All of them, native Hebrew speakers who speak English as a foreign language, accomplish a decision-making task (Robert’s apperception test for children 2). All the tasks were performed in both languages, one after the other, while being connected to the physiological measures which measured their arousal in-vivo. In accordance with our hypothesis, a significant difference was found in the task. A significant difference was also found in the Electroencephalogram of the right prefrontal cortex but in the opposite direction to our initial hypothesis. No other significant differences were found. The explanation for these results might derive from a different phenomenon that is well documented, and the anxiety that stem from the need of using a foreign language (Woodrow, 2006). Although we were not able to demonstrate an emotional detachment effect on a physiological level, we believe that holding the anxiety variable constant will yield that effect in future studies.
The Physiological Response to Drawing and Its Relation to Attention and Relaxation  [PDF]
Gareth H. Loudon, Gina M. Deininger
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.73011
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the physiological response of participants during a creative activity and compare the results to their physiological response during states of high attention and relaxation. Our interest was not only about the relationship between creativity and attention, but also about the role of valence and arousal. We used heart rate variability (HRV) as our physiological measure. We asked twenty-two participants to undertake three activities: a stroop test; a relaxation activity; and a drawing activity. After each activity, the participants were asked to reflect on their levels of attention, relaxation and enjoyment. The results showed significant physiological differences between the three activities: mean heart rate, F(2, 42) = 8.96, p = 0.001; log-transformed low frequency HRV power, F(1.43, 30.07) = 18.12, p < 0.001; and log-transformed high frequency HRV power, F(2, 42) = 6.25, p = 0.004. Overall, the results suggested that participants had high levels of attention during the drawing activity, with positive valence. The results also suggested that participants’ levels of arousal differed between the three activities. The implications of these results are described in the discussion.
Sleep Fragmentation and Risk of Automobile Accidents in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea—Sleep Fragmentation and Automobile Accidents in OSA  [PDF]
Akiko Noda, Fumihiko Yasuma, Seiko Miyata, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Yoshinari Yasuda, Norio Ozaki
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.112015
Abstract: Objectives: Automobile accidents related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent an important public health concern. Frequent arousal response during sleep is responsible for the symptoms of daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of automobile accidents in patients with OSA. We therefore investigated the potential relationships between the intensity of arousal and occurrence of automobile accidents in OSA. Methods: We determined the incidence of automobile accidents in the past 5 years among 51 men with OSA (age, 58.5 ± 10.4 years) using a questionnaire. Daytime sleepiness was rated with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). We calculated an automobile accident score, with two points per automobile accident causing damage and one point per near miss. Standard polysomnography was performed for all patients, and arousals were classified as electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal of an abrupt shift in EEG frequency alone and Movement arousal, which was defined as EEG arousal with increased electromyographic activity persisting for ≥3 s. The number of EEG or Movement arousals per hour (arousal index) was determined. Results: The Movement arousal index was significantly greater in the 27 patients who experienced at least one automobile accident causing damage than in the resting 24 patients who had no history of automobile accidents. Multiple regression analysis including age, body mass index, and sleep parameters revealed that the Movement arousal index was the most significant factor of risk for automobile accidents (β = 0.563, P = 0.017) as well as the ESS score (β = 0.417, P = 0.022). Conclusion: Movement arousal during sleep contributes to daytime sleepiness and the resulting frequent involvement of OSA patients in automobile accidents.
Normas brasileiras para o Affective Norms for English Words
Kristensen, Christian Haag;Gomes, Carlos Falc?o de Azevedo;Justo, Alice Reuwsaat;Vieira, Karin;
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S2237-60892011000300003
Abstract: introduction: the present study translated and adapted the affective norms for english words (anew) to brazilian portuguese (anew-br) and collected emotionality measures for a set of 1,046 words in brazilian portuguese. method: a sample of 755 male and female undergraduate students used the valence and arousal scales of the self-assessment manikin to judge the emotionality of 1,046 words in brazilian portuguese. results: valence values ranged from 1.16 to 8.80, while arousal values ranged from 2.22 to 7.67. further analyses indicated that both valence and arousal measures were reliable and suggested that the method used was appropriate for the collection of emotionality measures. conclusion: the availability of brazilian norms for the anew represents a methodological advancement for brazilian investigators in the development of future studies about the effects of emotion on human cognition.
A relook at the motor vehicle buyer after the purchase: dissonance arousal
S. Brijball
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2000, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v26i3.720
Abstract: This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957) se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.
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