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Silage Additives: Review  [PDF]
Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek, Birhan Tamir
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.45026
Abstract: Silage making process can be explained very simply, it is actually very complex and dependant on many factors, such as the natural microbial population, harvesting conditions and the sugar content of the forage. Consequently, silage quality can be very variable and the only way to effectively control the fermentation process is to use an additive. Additives are natural or industrial products added in rather large quantities to the forage or grain mass. Additives control or prevent certain types of fermentation, thus reducing losses and improving silage stability. In order to assist in the fermentation process, various silage additives have been used to improve the nutrient and energy recovery in silage, often with subsequent improvements in animal performance. The purpose for applying additives to the silage is to ensure that the growth of lactic bacteria predominates during the fermentation process, producing lactic acid in quantities high enough to ensure good silage. Therefore this review is made to focus on some practical aspects of the fermentation process and the uses of some common silage additives that include microbial inoculants, enzymes, and propionic acid.
Effect of probiotics, organic acids or their mix on the growth performance of starting cockerels
Fatufe,A.A; Matanmi,I.O.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000100019
Abstract: two hundred and eighty eight 3 weeks old cockerels (127.9±6.5 g) were randomly assigned to 7 treatments for a 42 days feeding trial. a basal diet (whithout additives) was formulated (maize, soybean meal, groundnut cake and wheat bran). probiotic (lactobacillus acidophilus, saccha-romyces cerevisae and s. boulardii) was added to the basal diet at the expense of wheat bran at 0, 0.05 and 0.1% in diets i, ii and iii. organic acids (formic and propionic) replaced the wheat bran at 0, 0.2 and 0.4% in diets i, iv and v. a mix of probiotics+acidifier replaced the wheat bran at 0.0+0.0, 0.05+0.2, and 0.1+0.4% in diets i, vi and vii. increasing feed additive did not affect to final body weight, body weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and feed/gain ratio of starting chicken. aditives at lower or upper levels of inclusion exert no influence on most performance criteria except on feed intake which was higher in birds fed a mix of probiotics and organic acids on diets vi and vii. final body weight was highest on diet vi (711) and lowest on diet i (661), while feed/gain ratio was highest on diet vii (4.1) and lowest on diet iii (3.8).
Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate on the Composition of Electroless Nickel – Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings  [PDF]
Nkem O. Nwosu, Alan M. Davidson, Colin S. Hindle
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.13018
Abstract: The influence of a surfactant on the composition of nickel – yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) cermet coatings, applied by electroless nickel plating technique was examined. The amphiphilic characteristics of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), was relied upon for enhanced dispersion of YSZ particles co-deposited for use as anodes in solid oxide fuel cell technology and potential heat absorbing layers in thermal barrier coatings. Optical microscopy was employed to study the correlation between the plating thickness, level of ceramic loading and SDS concentration while the effect of the surfactant and fineness of YSZ particles on the as-deposited coating’s ceramic to metal ratio, was analysed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) characterisation technique.
Silver Nanoparticles: Green Route, Stability and Effect of Additives  [PDF]
Zaheer Khan, Javed Ijaz Hussain, Sunil Kumar, Athar Adil Hashmi, Maqsood Ahmad Malik
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.24048
Abstract: Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with oxalic acid in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The synthesized silver particles show an intense surface plasmon band in the visible region. The work reported in this paper describes the effect of concentration of various additives (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, Na2SO4 and NaH2PO4) and ammonia on the growth and stability of Ag-nanoparticles. In all the cases the rate decreases as the [electrolytes] or [ammonia] increases. The nature, polarizability and coordinating ability of the anions play vital roles for nucleus formation and the growth process, which subsequently form different size particles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected areas electron diffraction, and UV-visible spectroscopy have been employed to characterize Ag-nanoparticles. The effect of the following variables on the particle size and size distribution was investigated: the [oxalic acid], [CTAB] and [Ag+].The nanoparticles are stable in NaNO3 and NaH2PO4 solutions; but NaCl, NaBr and Na2SO4 causes their aggregation.
Developments of Multifunctional Additives for High Quality Lube Oil  [PDF]
Noura El Mehbad
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2013.15014
Abstract:

In most lubrication systems, the oil is mixed with air, in contact with air, in contact with metals and at high temperature. This is mean cause of premature lubricant, deterioration which can result in oxidation products, which are mainly acid. Hydrocarbon oxidation in the liquid phase proceeds by a radical chain reaction. In the present paper polyalkylphenol formaldehyde sulphonate and its ethoxylate were synthesized and evaluated as pour point depressant, viscosity improver and antioxidant. The efficiency of these additives depends on their chemical structure and degree of mixing (mole fraction). Values of surface tension of these additives were measured in oil phase and consequently CMC was determined for all additives and their mixtures. A novel method of inhibiting oxidation was proposed. The author suggests the mechanism of inhibiting oxidation according to surface activity of additive in oil phase. More confirmations for suggested mechanism were investigated by measuring the area occupied per molecule of additive at oil phase. The results indicate that the compatibility of sulphonate with ethoxylate group and forming stable micelle which acts as wax dispersant and improver viscosity.

Research on Dihydrate Calcium Sulphate Crystallization during the Production of Phosphoric Acid by Wet Process  [PDF]
Huirong Du, Anyin Chen, Li Yang
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2014.212002
Abstract: Simulate the production of phosphoric acid by wet process is conducted in batch experiments facilities by adopting phosphorus concentrate as raw material from Wengfu, Dazhou city, with a view to study sulfuric acid concentration, reaction time, crystallization temperature of calcium sulfate, active additive, the influence of seed crystal on the size and shape of calcium sulfate crystal under conditions of Wet process phosphoric acid productive process. The research results show that under the conditions of the liquid-solid ratio of 4:1, the sulfate acid stoichiometric ratio of 1.1, phosphoric acid mass fraction of 21%, the crystallization temperature of 75°C, crystallization time of 120 min, when (NH4)2SO4 taken as active additives, Mg-doped calcium sulphate crystal as crystal seed can obtain rodlike crystallization of stability, thickness, uniformity.
Efectos de enzimas e inoculantes sobre la composición del ensilaje de maíz
Ruiz,B.O.; Castillo,Y.; Anchondo,A.; Rodríguez,C.; Beltrán,R.; La O,O.; Payán,J.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922009000200001
Abstract: treating silages with fibrolytic enzymes and bacterial inoculants has been shown to improve digestibility, fermentation and aerobic stability of a variety of forages. the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of three additives on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of silage from seven different hybrids: dk641?, eagle 238w?, golden harvest ex313?, golden harvest h9403?, pioneer 32r25?, pioneer 31g98?, and producers 725?. corn plants were planted in experimental plots (1 ha each) in chihuahua, mexico and harvested at stage of maturity of 1/3 of milkline. whole corn plants were cut and subsamples were chopped and ensiled in mini silos (1.3±0.1 kg) for 42 d. treatments were control: ct: 20 ml distilled water; sa: 0.0065 g sill all? 4x4 (l. plantarum, p. acidilactii, e. faecium, and b. salivarus); bs: 0.182 g bio-sile? (l. plantarum and p. pentosaceus) and fb: 0.31 g fibrozyme? (xylanases and t. viride). silage samples were analyzed for dry matter (dm), crude protein (cp), neutral detergent fiber (ndf), acid detergent fiber (adf), cellulose (ce), hemicellulose (he), in vitro dry matter digestibility (ivdmd), in vitro organic matter digestibility (ivomd), ph and lactic acid (la). inoculation with sa and bs increased content of ndf of silage of hybrids 31g98 and dk641 (p<0.05). addition of sa increased cp of silages from h9403, 238w and ex313 (p<0.05). however, fb decreased ndf concentration of 31g98, h9403 and 238w, lowered ph of dk641 and ex313 and increased concentration of la content of ex313 and increased concentration of la content of ex313 (p<0.05). no effect on dm and om digestibility was observed for fb, but when bs and sa were added a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed for the hybrids dk641, 32r25 and producers 725. these show that when applied at ensiling certain inoculants and fibrolytic enzymes can improve various chemical characteristics of corn silage, however, effects vary depending of the particular corn hyb
Influência da queima e aditivos químicos e bacterianos na composi??o química de silagens de cana-de-a?úcar
Siqueira,G.R.; Reis,R.A.; Schocken-Iturrino,R.P.; Bernardes,T.F.; Pires,A.J.V.; Roth,M.T.P.; Amaral,R.C.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922009000100005
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the chemical (urea, sodium benzoate, and sodium hydroxide) and microbiological (propionibacterium acidipropionici + lactoba-cillus plantarum, and lactobacillus buchneri) additives on the sugarcane nutritive value, ensiled crude or after burned, using a factorial scheme 2 (burned or crude sugar cane) x 6 (five additives urea, sodium benzoate, sodium hydroxide, propionibacterium acidipropionici + lactobaci-llus plantarum, and lactobacillus buchneri plus control). it was evaluated the sugar cane chemical composition, before and after ensilage. the sugar cane ndf contents increased (51.3%, before ensilage) to 67.8% after fermentation period. the highest true digestible dry matter recovery values, 83.6 and 79.8% were observed on the burned sugar cane silage treated with naoh or l. buchneri, respectively. the naoh, and l. buchneri showed more efficiency in reducing nutritive looses during the fermentation phase of the crude or burned sugar cane silage.
Características de fermenta??o da silagem de cana-de-a?úcar tratada com uréia, zeólita, inoculante bacteriano e inoculante bacteriano/enzimático
Ferreira, D.A.;Gon?alves, L.C.;Molina, L.R.;Castro Neto, A.G.;Tomich, T.R.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352007000200024
Abstract: the characteristics of fermentation of sugarcane (rb72454) submitted to the treatments control; 0.5% urea; 0.5% zeolita; 0.5% urea and 0.5% zeolita; commercial bacterial inoculant and commercial bacterial/enzymatic inoculant were studied. the material stored in silos was opened on 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of fermentation and was analysed for grades of ms, soluble carbohydrates, pb, nnh3/nt, ph, fdn, fda, cellulosis, hemicellulosis, lignin and divms. the reduction of the ms content of the silos was observed, with average of 21.1% compared to the original material (28.7%). the concentration of carbohydrates soluble on the original material was 19.7% and, after 56 days of fermentation, it was 0.92%. the concentration of pb in the control silage and treated with zeolita, commercial bacterial inoculant and commercial bacterial/enzymatic inoculant varied between 2.1% and 3.1% and in thoses that received urea and urea+zeolita was 8.4%. the grades of nnh3/nt were lower than 10% in the control silage and treated with zeolita, commercial bacterial inoculant and commercial bacterial/enzymatic inoculant. however, they were 30.4% and 31.1% in the silage with urea and urea+zeolita, respectively. on the first day of fermentation, the ph presented average of 3.75. after 56 days of fermentation, the concentration of fdn, fda, cellulosis and hemicellulosis increased, presenting averages considering the treatments of 68.6%, 39.6%, 34.5% and 29.1%, respectively. the coefficient of divms reduced with the fermentation, in all the evaluated treatments, being of 57.6% in the original material and averaging 47.6% in the silages.
Parametros de fermenta??o de silagens de cana-de-a?úcar submetidas a diferentes tratamentos
Castro Neto, A.G.;Molina, L.R.;Gon?alves, L.C.;Jayme, C.G.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352008000500017
Abstract: the values of dry matter (dm), ph, amoniacal nitrogen/total nitrogen (n-nh3/nt), organic acids, and ethanol of sugar cane silages were determined using a randomized blocks design. the treatment were: no addtitive (control); 0.5% urea (u); 0.5% zeolite (z); 0.5% urea plus 0.5% zeolite (u+z); bio max? (ibb), and silobac? (ibs). silages were analyzed on the 56th day after ensiling. the u and u+z treatments showed high latic acid concentrations in relation to control, respectively 8.9 and 4.7g%. the average ethanol contents of the treated silages were similar to control, respectively 12.4 and 12.9g%, suggesting no reduction of the alcoholic fermentation process in treated materials. additives used in this experiment did not enhance the qualitative parameters of the silages except for urea treated silages. it was concluded that the beneficial effect of urea on the quality of the sugar cane silages in the conditions of this experiment is limited, not suppressing the occurrence of the alcoholic fermentation process in the material.
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