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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3597 matches for " abstinence from alcohol "
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Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults
Korczak, Dieter,Steinhauser, Gerlinde,Dietl, Markus
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven before they are launched. At present activities for the reduction or prevention of risky alcohol consumption are not sufficiently evaluated in Germany concerning their sustainable efficacy.
Total abstinence or harm reduction – different strategies of alcohol treatment in research studies and international guidelines [Ca kowita abstynencja czy redukcja szkód – ró ne strategie terapii uzale nienia od alkoholu w wietle badań i mi dzynarodowych zaleceń]
Jakubczyk, Andrzej,Wojnar, Marcin
Psychiatria Polska , 2012,
Abstract: Alcohol use is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to global health burden as well as social and economic harm. Only about 16% of alcohol dependent individuals enter addiction treatment programs in Poland, with only a few more in Western Europe. The aim of the paper was to present two main treatment strategies of alcohol dependence: total abstinence and harm reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of both treatment goals are presented, pointing to a possibility of treating them as complementary strategies. A need to choose a proper, personalised patient-oriented aim of a treatment program is emphasised, with an option to revise the objective during long-term therapy.. The paper describes implications from investigating the problem of alcohol dependence from a population health perspective. The surprisingly high amount of individuals remitting spontaneously from alcohol dependence without treatment is also discussed, and a possible bias resulting from analysing data on alcoholic subjects coming only from addiction centres, not from general population is taken into consideration. In the second part of the paper, American as well as British alcohol treatment guidelines are presented.
Personality in the Big Five Model and maintaining abstinence after one year follow-up [Osobowo w Modelu Wielkiej Pi tki a utrzymywanie abstynencji od alkoholu przez rok od rozpocz cia leczenia]
B?tkowska-Korpa?a, Barbara
Psychiatria Polska , 2012,
Abstract: Aim. To compare Five-Factor personality traits in patients maintaining abstinence and relapsed patients (i.e. those who relapsed within a year after treatment), following eight weeks of in-house treatment and three months of out-patient treatment. Method. In longitudinal studies, a sample of 190 patients was analysed (49 females and 141 males; mean age: 43). The patients participated in therapeutic programmes at several addiction treatment centres across Poland. Personality traits were measured using the NEO PI-R inventory proposed by Costa and McCrae (adapted into Polish by Jerzy Siuta) at the initial stage of the treatment. Abstinence was assessed based on the interview. Results. As far as the main traits are concerned, abstinent patients have higher levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than patients who relapsed within a year following the therapy. Moreover, they are characterised by higher levels of constituent traits: Straightforwardness, Ideas and Altruism, as well as higher levels of Order, Self-Discipline and Dutifulness. However, their levels of Hostility are lower compared to patients not maintaining abstinence. Conclusions. After one year follow-up, the group maintaining abstinence is characterised by a higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, which is beneficial for cooperation with others as well as undertaking and realising tasks. Moreover, lower constituent values of Neuroticism are linked to higher adaptability and greater therapy participation than in a relapsed group. An early identification of patients bearing traits linked to lower adaptability will decrease the possibility of relapse thanks to making a greater effort at enhancing treatment participation while paying special attention to any co-existing psychopathology.
Liver transplantation in acute alcoholic hepatitis: Current status and future development
Ashwani K Singal,Andrea Duchini
World Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i8.215
Abstract: Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a distinct clinical entity amongst patients with chronic alcohol abuse. Patients with severe AH are at risk of dying in about 20%-25% cases despite specific treatment with corticosteroids and/or pentoxifylline. Clearly, a need for an additional more effective treatment option is unmet currently. Liver transplantation (LT), a definitive treatment option for alcoholic cirrhosis requires 6 mo abstinence. However, this rule cannot be applied to patients with AH as these patients are actively drinking prior to their presentation. Shortage of donors, ethical issues, and fear of recidivism after transplantation with less than 6 mo pre-transplant abstinence are some of the reasons behind this rule of 6 mo of abstinence and hesitancy of transplanting patients with AH. These issues are debated at length in this manuscript. Further, retrospective studies have shown that patients undergoing transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis and having histological changes of AH have been shown to fare as well when compared to patients without these histological changes. Recently, French workers have reported a case matched prospective study showing encouraging data on the usefulness of LT for patients who are non-responders to corticosteroid and/or pentoxifylline therapy. Future studies are needed to identify patients with severe AH who are going to benefit most with LT. In the light of emerging data on the efficacy of LT in improving survival of patients with severe acute AH who do not respond to corticosteroids, the time is ripe to re-evaluate our policy of LT in patients with AH.
Estudo dos prejuízos cognitivos na dependência do álcool
Oliveira,Margareth da Silva; Laranjeira,Ronaldo; Jaeger,Ant?nio;
Psicologia, Saúde & Doen?as , 2002,
Abstract: the objective of the present work is verify if there are changes on visual perception and in the immediate memory, in a sample of 152 masculine inpatients, with the alcoholism diagnostic. for the neurocognitive valuation was used the test figuras complexas de rey, applyed in two moments, between three months. was applyed once the sadd, to avalue the dependence gravity. the results of the test figuras complexas de rey, in the memory variable, was significant (p=.0001). the results obtained on the sadd, showed that 72% of the patients had serious dependence and 28% had moderate. the serious ones, on memory variable, presented signicant diferences (p=.0001). in relation of the maintenance of abstinence, 66,3% keeped abstinence and 33,7% falled back. in the abstinence group, were found significat results in both variable, copy and memory. the patients that didn?t keep abstinence had significant results on memory variable (p=.25).
Glutathione S-Transferase activity and total thiol status in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence
Manjunatha S Muttigi,Lakshmi S Prabhu,Vivekananda Kedage,Mungli Prakash
Online Journal of Health & Allied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Glutathione S Transferase (GST) has been involved in detoxification process in the liver and its activity has been shown to be increased in alcohol abusers. In the current work we measured the GST activity, total thiol status, AST, ALT, and direct bilirubin in chronic alcohol abusers before and 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Methods: Serum and urine GST activity and total thiol status were determined using spectrophotometric methods and serum transaminases were determined using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: We found,significant increase in serum and urine GST (p<0.001), AST (p<0.001), ALT (p<0.001), and decrease in total thiol status (p<0.001) in chronic alcohol abusers. GST activity significantly decreased (p<0.001) and total thiol status were improved significantly (p<0.001) 30 days after alcohol abstinence and lifestyle modification. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary data to suggest the role of GST as prognostic indicator of alcohol abstinence with possible trend towards an improvement in liver function.
Personal Accounts of Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Support Abstinence from Alcohol  [PDF]
Suzanne McGarva, Tony Machin
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.512008
Abstract: Alcohol consumption by professional educated women and mothers is rising. Drinking alcohol in the home is, for many, becoming a normalised and daily ritual. Previous research focuses on causality, risk factors and health related damage. Few studies focus on mothers of school age children specifically or why some mothers pursue and sustain alcohol free lives. The role of social media in enacting and sustaining abstinence is under researched, as are other factors important for this group in remaining abstinent. Aims: This qualitative study explored the reasons why mothers drank alcohol, and factors contributing to their decision to become alcohol free. It also explored the value and utility of social media in the form of a specific website aimed at providing support in abstinence. Methods: Six UK mothers with school age children who had become abstinent after previously drinking over official limits were recruited via social network website and interviewed. Transcripts were analysed thematically and inductive themes emerged. Results: Participants used alcohol to self-medicate, as a reward/relaxation strategy and because it was a normal part of their professional and daily lives. Reported reasons for abstinence included the negative effects alcohol had upon lives, inability to moderate/drink within guidelines and “trigger” events. Participants reported that their use of social media was inspirational, giving them a platform to share stories and help others and was preferred to traditional support. The use of social media in this way represented a supportive community and assisted vigilance toward the danger of relapse. Positive parenting identity, alternatives to alcohol, abstinence rewards and support from abstinent others were all factors in sustaining abstinence. Conclusions: Health professionals should recognise this hidden and hard to reach group and the potential efficacy of social media in assisting recovery from alcohol related issues.
General aspects of the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis
Michael J Babineaux,Bhupinderjit S Anand
World Journal of Hepatology , 2011, DOI: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i5.125
Abstract: General measures for treating patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are similar irrespective of the disease severity. Alcohol abstinence is the cornerstone of treatment and can be achieved with appropriate social support, Alcoholics Anonymous and sometimes pharmacological therapy. Alcohol withdrawal should be anticipated and treatment initiated to prevent this complication. Treatment for complications of cirrhosis should be as for any other patient with cirrhosis. AH patients are particularly prone to infections and malnutrition. These should be identified and treated appropriately using broad spectrum antibiotics and nutritional support respectively.
The rise of the total abstinence model. Recommendations regarding alcohol use during pregnancy in Finland and Denmark
Anna Leppo , Dorte Hecksher
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-011-0002-7
Abstract: AIMS - Adverse effects of alcohol on the fetus are currently defined as a serious public health problem in all western countries. Exposure of the fetus to alcohol may result in a spectrum of adverse effects, referred to collectively as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Different countries vary in terms of policy regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy. This paper sets out to examine and compare official recommendations on alcohol intake during pregnancy in Finland and Denmark since the 1970s. In addition, the paper analyses the rationale behind these recommendations. METHODS AND DATA - The method used is qualitative content analysis. The data consists of 1) health education material for pregnant women and 2) reports and guidelines produced by government health authorities. The data comes from Finland and Denmark and covers the period between the 1970's and today. RESULTS - The article demonstrates how the official Finnish and Danish recommendations regarding alcohol intake during pregnancy have in the last decades fluctuated between a more permissive and a total abstinence approach. Both countries have recently adopted a total abstinence message. This policy line is not, however, based on research evidence pertaining to the harmfulness of a small-to-moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy but rather on the principle of precaution. The Finnish data contains very little information about the background of the changing recommendations whereas the Danish trajectories are explained in policy documents and expert debates. The paper suggests that the recent adoption of a total abstinence message in Finland and Denmark is closely linked to a change in the social and cultural climate regarding FASD. Moreover, it is argued that the adoption of the total abstinence model in Finland and Denmark is part of a wider international trend. CONCLUSIONS - The knowledge gap with regards to the fetal effect of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption combined with an urge to protect the fetus makes the formulation of health education messages complicated. The paper discusses problematic features in the current Finnish and Danish policy arguing that the recommendations to pregnant women contain contradictory elements. Future research should focus on women's and health professionals' risk perceptions and international trends with regards to the total abstinence model.
Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators
Duffy Paul,Baldwin Helen
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-8-6
Abstract: Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a ‘normal’ life i.e. ‘social and physical capital’. Competing recovery goals and activities can leave people feeling under pressure and at risk of taking on or being pushed to do too much too soon. The breadth of re-integration and future plans at this stage is limited primarily to the recovery community and treatment sector. Services and commissioners should ensure that this does not become a limiting factor in individuals’ long term recovery journeys.
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