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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44008 matches for " Zuowei Wu "
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Probing Supergravity Unified Theories at the Large Hadron Collider
Liu, Zuowei
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: The discovery of supersymmetry is one of the major goals of the current experiments at the Tevatron and in proposed experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However when sparticles are produced the signatures of their production will to a significant degree depend on their hierarchical mass patterns. Here we investigate hierarchical mass patterns for the four lightest sparticles within one of the leading candidate theories - the SUGRA model. Specifically we analyze the hierarchies for the four lightest sparticles for the mSUGRA as well as for a general class of supergravity unified models including nonuniversalities in the soft breaking sector. It is shown that out of nearly $10^4$ possibilities of sparticle mass hierarchies, only a small number survives the rigorous constraints of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, relic density and other experimental constraints. The signature space of these mass patterns at the LHC is investigated using a large set of final states including multi-leptonic states, hadronically decaying $\tau$s, tagged $b$ jets and other hadronic jets. In all, we analyze more than 40 such lepton plus jet and missing energy signatures along with several kinematical signatures such as missing transverse momentum, effective mass, and invariant mass distributions of final state observables. It is shown that a composite analysis can produce significant discrimination among sparticle mass patterns allowing for a possible identification of the source of soft breaking. While the analysis given is for supergravity models, the techniques used in the analysis are applicable to wide class of models including string and brane models.
Transcriptional Responses of Leptospira interrogans to Host Innate Immunity: Significant Changes in Metabolism, Oxygen Tolerance, and Outer Membrane
Feng Xue,Haiyan Dong,Jinyu Wu,Zuowei Wu,Weilin Hu,Aihua Sun,Bryan Troxell,X. Frank Yang,Jie Yan
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000857
Abstract: Background Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis. Phagocytosis plays important roles in the innate immune responses to L. interrogans infection, and L. interrogans can evade the killing of phagocytes. However, little is known about the adaptation of L. interrogans during this process. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira and innate immunity, we employed microarray and comparative genomics analyzing the responses of L. interrogans to macrophage-derived cells. During this process, L. interrogans altered expressions of many genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy production, signal transduction, transcription and translation, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane proteins. Among them, the catalase gene expression was significantly up-regulated, suggesting it may contribute to resisting the oxidative pressure of the macrophages. The expressions of several major outer membrane protein (OMP) genes (e.g., ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, lipL48 and ompL47) were dramatically down-regulated (10–50 folds), consistent with previous observations that the major OMPs are differentially regulated in vivo. The persistent down-regulations of these major OMPs were validated by immunoblotting. Furthermore, to gain initial insight into the gene regulation mechanisms in L. interrogans, we re-defined the transcription factors (TFs) in the genome and identified the major OmpR TF gene (LB333) that is concurrently regulated with the major OMP genes, suggesting a potential role of LB333 in OMPs regulation. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report on global responses of pathogenic Leptospira to innate immunity, which revealed that the down-regulation of the major OMPs may be an immune evasion strategy of L. interrogans, and a putative TF may be involved in governing these down-regulations. Alterations of the leptospiral OMPs up interaction with host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) provide critical information for selection of vaccine candidates. In addition, genome-wide annotation and comparative analysis of TFs set a foundation for further studying regulatory networks in Leptospira spp.
Blood-Based Gene Expression Profiles Models for Classification of Subsyndromal Symptomatic Depression and Major Depressive Disorder
Zhenghui Yi, Zezhi Li, Shunying Yu, Chengmei Yuan, Wu Hong, Zuowei Wang, Jian Cui, Tieliu Shi, Yiru Fang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031283
Abstract: Subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD) is a subtype of subthreshold depressive and also lead to significant psychosocial functional impairment as same as major depressive disorder (MDD). Several studies have suggested that SSD is a transitory phenomena in the depression spectrum and is thus considered a subtype of depression. However, the pathophysioloy of depression remain largely obscure and studies on SSD are limited. The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group). Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (P< = 5.0E-4) and 30 differentially expressed MDD signatures in contrast to control, respectively. Then, 123 gene signatures were identified with significantly differential expression level between SSD and MDD. Secondly, in order to conduct priority selection for biomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy. Our finding suggested that SSD and MDD did not exhibit the same expressed genome signature with peripheral blood leukocyte, and blood cell–derived RNA of these 48 gene models may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and classifying SSD, MDD, and healthy controls.
Susceptibility of schizophrenia and affective disorder not associated with loci on chromosome 6q in Han Chinese population
Zuowei Wang, Yiru Fang, Shunying Yu, Chengmei Yuan, Wu Hong, Zhenghui Yi, Sanduo Jiang, R Kelsoe John, Zucheng Wang
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-46
Abstract: In the present study, we genotyped 45 family trios from Han Chinese population with mixed family history of schizophrenia and affective disorder. Twelve short tandem repeat (STRs) markers were selected, which covered 102.19 cM on chromosome 6q with average spacing 9.29 cM and heterozygosity 0.78. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed to search for susceptibility loci to schizophrenia and affective disorder.The results showed STRs D6S257, D6S460, D6S1021, D6S292 and D6S1581 were associated with susceptibility to psychotic disorders. When families were grouped into schizophrenia and affective disorder group, D6S257, D6S460 and D6S1021, which map closely to the centromere of chromosome 6q, were associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Meanwhile, D6S1581, which maps closely to the telomere, was associated with susceptibility to affective disorder. But after correction of multiple test, all above association were changed into no significance (P > 0.05).These results suggest that susceptibility of schizophrenia and affective disorder not associated with loci on chromosome 6q in Han Chinese population.The distinction between schizophrenia and affective disorder was historically based on distinct phenomenologies and long-term courses. A differential nosology and etiology was postulated, however never convincingly proven [1]. Opinions vary as to whether these disorders are etiologically distinct or represent points on a continuum of liability. Speculating from Kraepelin's view, schizophrenia does not aggregate in families of affective illness patients nor is there increased incidence of mood disorder in relatives of chronic schizophrenics. However, Rudin found risks of suffering from schizophrenia and mood disorder did not differ significantly among schizophrenic sibs [2]. Subsequently investigators found an increased risk of schizophrenic spectrum disorders among the first-degree relatives of probands with a family history of major mood disorders
Novel genome polymorphisms in BCG vaccine strains and impact on efficacy
Andrea S Leung, Vanessa Tran, Zuowei Wu, Xuping Yu, David C Alexander, George Gao, Baoli Zhu, Jun Liu
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-413
Abstract: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and is the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Since 1974, BCG vaccination has been included in the World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization. It is estimated that more than 3 billion individuals have been immunized with BCG and over 100 million doses of BCG are administered annually. Multiple studies have confirmed that BCG is generally safe and can protect children against disseminated disease, including tuberculosis meningitis [1,2]. BCG also provides cross-protection against leprosy [3]. However, the success of BCG against pulmonary TB in adults is still debated, since randomized clinical trials have reported protection efficacy ranging from 0–80% [4,5]. Several hypotheses for the variation in observed efficacy have been proposed [6-9].One explanation concerns the heterogeneity of the BCG strains [6]. The original BCG was derived from a virulent strain of M. bovis isolated from a cow. From 1908 through 1921, this isolate was subjected to 230 passages on glycerinated potato bile medium, which generated an attenuated strain termed BCG [10]. Distribution and widespread use of BCG started around 1924 and was accompanied by changes in the manufacturing process in production facilities. For instance, while BCG in Sweden was transferred without interruption from bile potato to bile potato medium in accordance with Calmette's original practice [11], BCG production in Denmark involved alternating rounds of growth on potato bile medium and Sauton broth until 1949 when it was grown exclusively in Sauton medium [12]. Prior to the establishment of seed stocks in the 1960s, BCG was passaged continuously, and the changes in media and transfer schedules contributed to the "in vitro evolution" of BCG [6]. It is estimated that as many as 49 production substrains have been used at one time or another in various parts of the world [13], including the four major BCG vacc
Estimate of the Cutoff Errors in the Ewald Summation for Dipolar Systems
Zuowei Wang,Christian Holm
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1398588
Abstract: Theoretical estimates for the cutoff errors in the Ewald summation method for dipolar systems are derived. Absolute errors in the total energy, forces and torques, both for the real and reciprocal space parts, are considered. The applicability of the estimates is tested and confirmed in several numerical examples. We demonstrate that these estimates can be used easily in determining the optimal parameters of the dipolar Ewald summation in the sense that they minimize the computation time for a predefined, user set, accuracy.
On B-spline framelets derived from the unitary extension principle
Zuowei Shen,Zhiqiang Xu
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Spline wavelet tight frames of Ron-Shen have been used widely in frame based image analysis and restorations. However, except for the tight frame property and the approximation order of the truncated series, there are few other properties of this family of spline wavelet tight frames to be known. This paper is to present a few new properties of this family that will provide further understanding of it and, hopefully, give some indications why it is efficient in image analysis and restorations. In particular, we present a recurrence formula of computing generators of higher order spline wavelet tight frames from the lower order ones. We also represent each generator of spline wavelet tight frames as certain order of derivative of some univariate box spline. With this, we further show that each generator of sufficiently high order spline wavelet tight frames is close to a right order of derivative of a properly scaled Gaussian function. This leads to the result that the wavelet system generated by a finitely many consecutive derivatives of a properly scaled Gaussian function forms a frame whose frame bounds can be almost tight.
MyBASE: a database for genome polymorphism and gene function studies of Mycobacterium
Xinxing Zhu, Suhua Chang, Kechi Fang, Sijia Cui, Jun Liu, Zuowei Wu, Xuping Yu, George F Gao, Huanming Yang, Baoli Zhu, Jing Wang
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-40
Abstract: We have developed a mycobacterial database (MyBASE) housing genome polymorphism data and gene functions to provide the mycobacterial research community with a useful information resource and analysis platform. Whole genome comparison data produced by our lab and the novel genome polymorphisms identified were deposited into MyBASE. Extensive literature review of genome polymorphism data, mainly large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs), operon predictions and curated annotations of virulence and essentiality of mycobacterial genes are unique features of MyBASE. Large-scale genomic data integration from public resources makes MyBASE a comprehensive data warehouse useful for current research. All data is cross-linked and can be graphically viewed via a toolbox in MyBASE.As an integrated platform focused on the collection of experimental data from our own lab and published literature, MyBASE will facilitate analysis of genome structure and polymorphisms, which will provide insight into genome evolution. Importantly, the database will also facilitate the comparison of virulence factors among various mycobacterial strains. MyBASE is freely accessible via http://mybase.psych.ac.cn webcite.Mycobacteria are notorious for its two species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, respectively. In addition to M. tb and M. leprae, a number of mycobacterial pathogens also cause human and animal diseases, including Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of classical bovine tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans), which causes Buruli ulcers. The emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of pathogenic mycobacteria has made the development of better vaccines and new drugs and novel control strategies a top priority.The genome of M. tb H37Rv was the first mycobacterial genome to be sequenced and was published in 1998 [1], which was followed by the genome of M. leprae in 2001 [2]
Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays
Zuowei Wu, Ming Li, Changjun Wang, Jing Li, Na Lu, Ruifen Zhang, Yongqiang Jiang, Ruifu Yang, Cuihua Liu, Hui Liao, George F Gao, Jiaqi Tang, Baoli Zhu
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-219
Abstract: Our results demonstrate that SS2 isolates have highly divergent genomes. The 89K pathogenicity island (PAI), which has been previously recognized as unique to the Chinese epidemic strains causing STSS, was partially included in some other virulent and avirulent strains. The ABC-type transport systems, encoded by 89K, were hypothesized to greatly contribute to the catastrophic features of STSS. Moreover, we identified many polymorphisms in genes encoding candidate or known virulence factors, such as PlcR, lipase, sortases, the pilus-associated proteins, and the response regulator RevS and CtsR. On the basis of analysis of regions of differences (RDs) across the entire genome for the 18 selected SS2 strains, a model of microevolution for these strains is proposed, which provides clues into Streptococcus pathogenicity and evolution.Our deep comparative genomic analysis of the 89K PAI present in the genome of SS2 strains revealed details into how some virulent strains acquired genes that may contribute to STSS, which may lead to better environmental monitoring of epidemic SS2 strains.Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that causes severe porcine infectious diseases, including arthritis, meningitis, and pneumonia [1-3]. Virulent strains of SS2 can also be transmitted to humans (especially abattoir workers and pork handlers) by direct contact, causing meningitis, permanent hearing loss, septic shock, and even death. Two large-scale outbreaks of severe SS2 epidemics occurred in China in 1998 and 2005, causing great economic losses in the swine industry. These two outbreaks also posed serious public health risks from the newly emerging streptococcal toxin shock syndrome (STSS), which claimed 52 lives [4]. Over the past decade, considerable attention has been given to the study of virulence factors (e.g., CPS, MRP, EF, and suilysin) and the pathogen-host interaction in this emerging pathogen. However, comparative studies at the wh
Guidelines Disconcordance in Acute Bipolar Depression: Data from the National Bipolar Mania Pathway Survey (BIPAS) in Mainland China
Zuowei Wang, Keming Gao, Wu Hong, Mengjuan Xing, Zhiguo Wu, Jun Chen, Chen Zhang, Chengmei Yuan, Jia Huang, Daihui Peng, Yong Wang, Weihong Lu, Zhenghui Yi, Xin Yu, Jingping Zhao, Yiru Fang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096096
Abstract: With the recent attention to the importance of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, a number of treatment guidelines have been published. This survey investigated prescribing pattern and predictors for guideline disconcordance in the acute treatment of bipolar depression across mainland China. Pharmacological treatments of 1078 patients with bipolar depression were examined. Guidelines disconcordance was determined by comparing the medication(s) patients were prescribed with the recommendation(s) in the guidelines of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments. Predictors for guidelines discordance were analyzed with logistic regression. Of the 1078 patients, 50.2% patients were treated against treatment guidelines recommendations. The patients who were treated in general hospitals (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.18–1.97), with a depressive episode (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.27–2.19) and an older age at first onset (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.15–2.28) were more likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatment than their counterparts. In contrast, the patients with current mental comorbidity, an older age at study entry, a longer duration of disease, and more frequent episodes in past year were less likely to receive guideline-disconcordant treatments than their counterparts with an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.24–0.77), 0.52 (95CI% 0.36–0.75), 0.48 (95% CI 0.36–0.65), and 0.50 (95% CI 0.38–0.64), respectively. Our finding suggested the disconcordance with treatment guidelines in patients with an acute bipolar depression is common under naturalistic conditions in mainland China, and the predicting factors correlated with guidelines disconcordance include both psychiatrist-specific (clinicians from general hospitals) and patient-specific features (a depressive episode at first onset, no current co-morbidity with mental disorders, a younger age at study entry, an older age at first onset, shorter duration of disease, and non-frequent episodes in past year).
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