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On Semi π-Regular Local Ring  [PDF]
Zubayda M. Ibraheem, Raghad A. Mustafa, Maha F. Khalf
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104788
Abstract:
A ring R is said to be a right (left) semi π-regular local ring if and only if for all a in R, either a or (1-a) is a right (left) semi π-regular element. The purpose of this paper is to give some characterization and properties of semi π-regular local rings, and to study the relation between semi π-regular local rings and local rings. From the main results of this work: 1) Let R be a semi π-regular reduced ring. Then the idempotent associated element is unique. 2) Let R be a ring. Then R is a right semi π-regular local ring if and only if either r(an) or r((1-a)n) is direct summand for all aR and nZ . If R is a local ring with r(anr(a) for all aR and nZ , then R is a right semi π-regular local ring.
Removal of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide from Air Streams by Absorption in Urea Solution  [PDF]
Mahmood M. Barbooti, Neran K. Ibraheem, Awni H. Ankosh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22020
Abstract: The study focuses on the absorption rates of NO2, SO2 and a mixture of these two acid gases into urea solution in packed bed column. The absorption rate was studied as a function of absorbent temperature, urea concentration and acid gas concentration. The influence of liquid temperature between 10 - 40?C, urea concentration between 0.1 - 0.5 M and acid gas concentration NO2 between 100 - 1000 ppm (191 - 1910 mg/m3), SO2 between 500 - 2500 ppm (1310 - 6530 mg/m3) were investigated. The mass gas flow rate of 20.646 (kg/m2.min) at 25?C and the absorption rate were determined by measuring the NO2 and SO2 concentrations in the inlet and outlet streams of the absorptioncolumn. The absorption rate of SO2 increases with the decrease of temperature of absorbent (urea solution) and with the increase of the urea concentration. The presence of NO2 in the effluent gas stream lowers the absorption rate of SO2 in urea solution due to the fast reaction of NO2 with urea as compared with SO2. The absorption rate of NO2 decreases as the urea concentration exceeds 0.4 mol/l and for NO2 gas concentration of 100 ppm due to the decrease the diffusivity of the gas. The experimental data were analyzed using dimensionless analysis to find the correlation of mass transfer coefficient in the packed column Sh (H / dp)1.2 = 4.19*10–2 *(G' dp / μg)0.87 (μg / ρg DAB)0.60 The results confirmed the hypothesis that the absorption is accompanied with chemical reaction. Also it is found the increasing the temperature of absorbent solution the absorption rate of two gases is decreases. The mass transfer coefficient models are in good agreements with the Kramer’s equation.
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Beta (MIP-1β) and Platelet Indices as Predictors of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
—MIP, MPV and PDW in SBP
 [PDF]

Soha E. Khorshed, Hoda A. Ibraheem, Shereen M. Awad
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.57016
Abstract: Background/Aims: The objective of this study is to measure macrophage inflammatory protein one beta (MIP-1β), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) to evaluate their usefulness in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods: This study comprised 41 cirrhotic patients with ascites. MPV, PDW and MIP-1β were measured in serum and ascitic fluid. Results: A significant increase MPV, PDW, C-reactive Protein (CRP) and white blood cell was observed in SBP group compared to non SBP (P ≤ 0.001, P = 0 < 0.004, P = 0.001, P = 0.001 respectively). In addition, MIP-1β was significantly in-creased in ascitic fluid in patients with SBP versus non SBP (P ≤ 0.001). At cutoff value of 8.3 fl MPV had 85.7% sensitivity and 75% specificity (AUC = 0.876) for diagnosis of SBP. At cutoff value of 15.4 PDW had 90.4% sensitivity and 55% specificity (AUC = 0.762). At cutoff value of 121.9 pg/ml MIP-1β in ascitic fluid had 76.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC = 0.881) for detecting SBP. Conclusion: MIP-1β and platelet indices are useful marker in the diagnosis of SBP in cirrhotic patients. Combined measurement of MIP-1β in serum and ascitic fluid had 100% sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of SBP.
Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Review
Olabisi M. Loto,Ibraheem Awowole
Journal of Pregnancy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/379271
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) was declared a public health emergency by WHO in 2005. The disease is a significant contributor to maternal mortality and is among the three leading causes of death among women aged 15–45 years in high burden areas. The exact incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy, though not readily available, is expected to be as high as in the general population. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in pregnancy may be challenging, as the symptoms may initially be ascribed to the pregnancy, and the normal weight gain in pregnancy may temporarily mask the associated weight loss. Obstetric complications of TB include spontaneous abortion, small for date uterus, preterm labour, low birth weight, and increased neonatal mortality. Congenital TB though rare, is associated with high perinatal mortality. Rifampicin, INH and Ethambutol are the first line drugs while Pyrazinamide use in pregnancy is gaining popularity. Isoniazid preventive therapy is a WHO innovation aimed at reducing the infection in HIV positive pregnant women. Babies born to this mother should be commenced on INH prophylaxis for six months, after which they are vaccinated with BCG if they test negative. Successful control of TB demands improved living conditions, public enlightenment, primary prevention of HIV/AIDS and BCG vaccination. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is believed to be nearly as old as human history. Traces of it in Egyptian mummies date back to about 7000 years ago, when it was described as phthisis by Hippocrates [1]. It was declared a public health emergency in the African Region in 2005 [1] and has since continued to be a major cause of disability and death. About 9.4 million new cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed in 2009 alone and 1.7 million people reportedly died from the disease in the same year, translating to about 4700 deaths per day [2]. About one-third of the world’s population (estimated to be about 1.75 billion) is infected with the tubercule bacillus [3]. As much as 75% of individuals with TB are within the economically productive age group of 15 to 54 years. This significantly impairs socioeconomic development, thereby perpetuating the poverty cycle [4]. Tuberculosis has been on the rise in tandem with HIV/AIDS. This is because people with HIV/AIDS, whose immune systems are weakened have with a 20–37 times the risk of developing a progressive disease compared with HIV-negative individuals [4]. 2. Microbiology of Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an aerobic, non-spore-forming, nonmotile bacillus, is one of five members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Reduction of artifacts in dental cone beam CT images to improve the three dimensional image reconstruction  [PDF]
Issa Ibraheem
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.58052
Abstract: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanners are based on volumetric tomography, using a 2D extended digital array providing an area detector [1,2]. Compared to traditional CT, CBCT has many advantages, such as less X-ray beam limitation, and rapid scan time, etc. However, in CBCT images the x-ray beam has lower mean kilovolt (peak) energy, so the metal artifact is more pronounced on. The position of the shadowed region in other views can be tracked by projecting the 3D coordinates of the object. Automatic image segmentation was used to replace the pixels inside the metal object with the boundary pixels. The modified projection data, using synthetically Radon Transformation, were then used to reconstruct a new back projected CBCT image. In this paper, we present a method, based on the morphological, area and pixel operators, which we applied on the Radon transformed image, to reduce the metal artifacts in CBCT, then we built the Radon back project images using the radon invers transformation. The artifacts effects on the 3d-reconstruction is that, the soft tissues appears as bones or teeth. For the preprocessing of the CBCT images, two methods are used to recognize the noisy black areas that the first depends on thresholding and closing algorithm, and the second depends on tracing boundaries after using thresholding algorithm too. The intensity of these areas is the lowest in the image than other tissues, so we profit this property to detect the edges of these areas. These two methods are applied on phantom and patient image data. It deals with reconstructed CBCT dicom images and can effectively reduce such metal artifacts. Due to the data of the constructed images are corrupted by these metal artifacts, qualitative and quantitative analysis of CBCT images is very essential.
Novel approach for the automated detection of allergy test using spectral imaging  [PDF]
Issa Ibraheem
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.58053
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approach for the automatic detection of allergy test (allergy lesion). A hyperspectral microscope system was used to image the test samples which were diagnosed by dermatologist. It was found that allergy of different levels, and healthy skin cells show absorption spectra, which are sufficiently characteristic and yet reproducible enough to allow for differentiation when using a spectroscopic system. Principal components analysis was used to extract relevant features that could be used for classification from these spectra. Preliminary results indicate that the different types of allergy cells can be reliably distinguished by these features. We conclude that hyperspectral microscopic analysis is a promising approach for improving and automating the diagnosis of allergy test as well as another skin lesions.
Development of Large-Scale Land Information System (LIS) by Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Field Surveying  [PDF]
Asma Th. Ibraheem
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.42014
Abstract: Cadastral maps are an important component of land administration in most countries. In virtually all developed countries, the needs of computerized land and geographic information systems (LIS/GIS) has given urgent impetus to computerizing cadastral maps and creating digital cadastral data bases (DCDB). This process is creating many institutional, legal, technical and administrative problems. This desire to establish DCDBs is being given increased impetus due to a new range of enabling technologies such as satellite position fixing (GPS), improved spatial data collection techniques such as digital theodolites and “soft copy” photogrammetry, as well as a vast range of new information and communications technological tools, thus contributing to the advancement and keeping up with the great countries. This paper presents the problem of cadastral maps. The hitherto existing cadastre, consisting of paper maps and land registers, is now becoming insufficient. Its shortcomings force developments leading to its improvement. One of the ways is the creation of a Land Information System. A digital cadastral map is the main component of this system. The structure and information content of the map is presented, its differences from analogue maps are shown, and the process of map creation is described. A digital cadastral map can be the basis for additional thematic layers, successively converting it into a complex system for management of administrative units.
An interarrival hyperexponential machine interference with balking, reneging, state-dependent, spares, and an additional server for longer queues
Ragab Omarah Al-Seedy,Fawziah M. Al-Ibraheem
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201005841
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to treat the analytical solution of the truncated interarrival hyperexponential machine interference queue: H2/M/1/m
Distribution of Flowering Plants and Cyanobacteria in Relation to Soil Characters in Bahariya Oasis, Egypt
I.B. M. Ibraheem,E. A. Al-Sherif
International Journal of Botany , 2009,
Abstract: Baharia Oasis in one of the famous Oasses in western desert of Egypt. This study dealt with the distribution of flowering plants and cyanobacteria in the Oasis in relation to each other and to physicochemical characters of soil. Fifty six species of flowering plants and 29 cyanobacterial species were identified in seven different habitats. The data revealed that the flowering plants and algal taxa were controlled by the edaphic factors and physico-chemical characters of the soil. In the present study, both positive and negative correlations between flowering plants and cyanobacterial taxa were obtained confirming the controversial effect of cyanobacterial crust on vascular plants.
High harmonic generation in undoped graphene: Interplay of inter- and intraband dynamics
Ibraheem Al-Naib,J. E. Sipe,Marc M. Dignam
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.245423
Abstract: We develop a density matrix formalism in the length gauge to calculate the nonlinear response of intrinsic monolayer graphene at terahertz frequencies. Employing a tight-binding model, we find that the interplay of the interband and intraband dynamics leads to strong harmonic generation at moderate field amplitudes. In particular, we find that at low temperature, the reflected field of undoped suspended graphene exhibits a third harmonic amplitude that is 32% of the fundamental for an incident field of 100 V/cm. Moreover, we find that up to the seventh harmonic and beyond are generated.
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