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In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran
Salmanizadeh Hossein,Babaie Mahdi,Zolfagharian Hossein
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1678-9199-19-3
Abstract: Background The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec) is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52). These subfractions were then intravenously (IV) injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 μg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.
Clinical and biochemical manifestation produced by scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus) venom in experimental animals
Mirakabbadi A., Zare;Zolfagharian, H.;Hedayat, A.;Jalali, A.;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992007000400007
Abstract: several studies have been published about the clinical and biochemical manifestations produced by the venom of scorpions of the buthidae family, but very few reports have indicated the manifestations induced by the venom of the scorpionidae family. hemiscorpius lepturus is an important scorpion species present in the south and southwestern part of iran, causing morbidity and mortality in children and adults. for the present study, h. lepturus venom was extracted by electric shock and subcutaneously injected (6.3mg/kg) into a group of six rabbits. blood collection was carried out before and three hours after venom injection for determination of osmotic fragility and levels of blood sugar, alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), creatine phosphokinase (cpk) and alkaline phosphatase (alp). in vitro studies were also carried out to verify the osmotic fragility of red blood cells (rbcs) exposed to venom concentrations ranging from 0-90μg/2ml blood. results showed the extreme effect of this venom on the lysis of rbcs both in vitro and in vivo. venom injection caused significant (p>0.001) increase in alt, ast, ldh and blood sugar levels. there was also an increase in cpk, and alp levels after venom injection; however, it was not statistically significant. all animals died four hours after having received the venom. the current study revealed that the neurological effect of h. lepturus venom is similar to that of scorpions of the buthidae family. however, they differ in rbcs lysis, which was highly significant when induced by h. lepturus venom, probably due to the presence of a type of phospholipase in this venom. further studies are needed to provide a clearer view of the mechanism of action of h. lepturus venom.
Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System
Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.,Damavandi, M.,Zolfagharian, H.,Moradi, S.
Archives of Razi Institute , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL) venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500μg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423) and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.
Preparation and in vitro characterization of chitosan nanoparticles containing Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom as an antigen delivery system
Mohammadpour Dounighi, N;Eskandari, R;Avadi, MR;Zolfagharian, H;Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, A;Rezayat, M;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000100006
Abstract: hydrophilic nanoparticles have been widely investigated in recent years as delivery systems for therapeutic macromolecules such as antigens. in the present study mesobuthus eupeus venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared via ionic gelation of tripolyphosphate (tpp) and chitosan. the optimum encapsulation efficiency (91.1%) and loading capacity (76.3%) were obtained by a chitosan concentration of 2 mg/ml, chitosan-to-tpp mass ratio of 2 and m. eupeus venom concentration of 500 μg/ml. the average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was determined by zetasizer (malvern instruments, uk). the nanoparticle size was about 370 nm (polydispersity index: 0.429) while the zeta potential was positive. transmission electron microscope (tem) imaging showed a spherical, smooth and almost homogenous structure for nanoparticles. fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy confirmed tripolyphosphoric groups of tpp linked with ammonium groups of chitosan in the nanoparticles. the in vitro release of nanoparticles showed an initial burst release of approximately 60% in the first ten hours, followed by a slow and much reduced additional release for about 60 hours. it is suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles fabricated in our study may provide a suitable alternative to traditional adjuvant systems.
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