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Influência do espa amento na conforma o do fuste, diametro à altura do peito e altura do cambará – Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabr. Spacing effect on stem form, diameter-at-breast-height and tree height of cambará – Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabr.
Hideyo AOKI,Léo ZIMBACK
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2010,
Abstract: Trata-se de estudo sobre um plantio experimental de Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabr. – cambará, desenvolvido na Floresta de Avaré do Instituto Florestal de S o Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do espa amento sobre caracteres silviculturaisdessa espécie arbórea. Os espa amentos utilizados foram: 1,50 m x 1,00 m; 2,00 m x 1,00 m; 2,50 m x 1,00 m e 3,00 m x 1,00 m. Verificou-se que: a) a taxa de crescimento em diametro e altura é expressiva até o 4o ano de idade; b) a taxa de crescimento em diametro e altura após o 12o ano de idade é quase nula, e c) n o houve influência dos espa amentos estudados na conforma o do fuste, na altura e DAP. Palavras-chave: silvicultura; manejo; espécie nativa.This is a study about an experimental planting of Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabr. – cambará, established at the Avaré Forest of Instituto Florestal de S o Paulo, in order to analyze the spacing influence on silvicultural traits of this tree species. The spacings utilized were: 1.50 m x 1.00 m; 2.00 m x 1.00 m; 2.50 m x 1.00 m and 3.00 m x 1.00 m. It was verified that: a) the Diameter at Breast Height – DBH and height growths are expressive until 4 years after planting; b) the DBH and height growths are insignificants after the 12th year, and c) there was no spacing effect in the stem form, height and DBH.
Influência do diametro na densidade básica dos caules de crotalaria juncea e quenafe (Hibiscus cannabinus)
Azzini, Anísio;Zimback, Léo;Salgado, Antonio Luiz de Barbos;
Bragantia , 1982, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051982000100017
Abstract: the basic density of sunn hemp (crotalaria juncea) and kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus) stalks were determined by the maximum moisture content method and water displacement method. the density of the solid substance of sunn hemp and kenaf stalks was also determined. the results showed a direct relationship between diameter of the stalks and basic density. the density of the solid substance of sunn hemp and kenaf stalks was similar to the density of wood substance.
Palmito de cana-de-a?úcar: nova op??o alimentar
Azzini, Anisio;Zimback, Leo;Carvalho, Cassia R.L.;Costa, Antonio Alberto;
Bragantia , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051992000100003
Abstract: in this study, carried out in 1991, at the experimental center of the instituto agron?mico, campinas, state of s?o paulo, brazil, the extraction producers of sugar cane heart as a human food is described. the chemical properties of this new product were determined considering the sugar cane clone iac 70-32. the sugar cane heart is a by-product of the sugar crop and can be used as a foodstuff with protein content (2.10%) similar to the palm heart (2.18%). yielding around 483 kg/ha can be expected taken into account the number of sugar cane culms per hectare.
Palha de cana-de-a?úcar como matéria-prima na obten??o de fibras celulósicas para papel
Azzini, Anisio;Zimback, Leo;Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araújo;
Bragantia , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051996000100017
Abstract: the morphological characteristics of cellulosic fibers obtained from sugarcane straw were determined. this material, a fibrous residue, presented fiber length (1.24 mm) between the eucaliptus (1.0 mm) and pinus (4.0 mm) fiber lengths, whose woods are the main cellulosic raw material used to produce pulp and paper. the average values for wall thickness, lumen diameter and fiber width were, respectively 4.33, 4.15 and 12.80 μm. although, the fiber yields obtained in acid (34.63%) or alkaline (33.97%) conditions were low in comparison with that obtained for wood species, the sugarcane straw is adequate to be used as raw material for papermaking.
Modelo numérico do terreno obtido por diferentes métodos em cartas planialtimétricas
Barbosa, Ana P.;Silva, Alessandra F. da;Zimback, Célia R. L.;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662012000600010
Abstract: the digital elevation model is important to determine the slope and land use capability, therefore, a proposal of methodology for acquisition of elevation data contemplating an efficient algorithm to generate a slope map was developed. thus, it was aimed to obtain and evaluate a digital elevation model without the vetorization of the contours on planialtimetric charts. the area for acquisition of elevation data was s?o manuel, sp. the data were collected by two methods: level contour vetorization and the gathering of elevation points on the level contour with maximum elevation points. the elevation data were analyzed by geostatistical techniques. inspite of wide difference in the number of collected points between two methods, the variograms were adjusted to the exponential model and showed a range of approximately 1500 m, which does not justify the wide difficulty in vetorization of the planialtimetric charts, once the data points collected in the area were appropriately distributed, they represented rightly the terrain surface
Caracteriza??o e identifica??o das cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical e Dourad?o através de marcadores RAPD
Zimback, Léo;Barbosa, Wilson;Mori, Edson Seizo;Veiga, Renato Ferraz de Arruda;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452003000200045
Abstract: the genetic characterization for peach varieties tropical and dourad?o was realized by the rapd method, also comparing with dourado-1, tutu, maravilha, rubro-sol, flordaprince, aurora-1 and talism? varieties, from iac "frutas de caro?o" germplasm active bank, maintained in núcleo de agronomia de cap?o bonito, using dna extracted of young leaves, with the purpose of establishing efficient markers in the variety identification. were obtained 31 markers from highly polimorphic primers opad10, opae04, opae07, opae09, opae11, opaj04 and opaj06, selected from 96 primers evaluated. the rapd markers used, indicated the relationship degree among varieties in an efficient way; except in varieties of free polinization origin. even among the varieties siblings as tutu and talism? had certain genetic distance (0,29), showing that the rapd is capable to characterize kindred materials. the tropical and dourad?o peaches varieties were well characterized in relation to the parents and others varieties, with genetic distances varying fron 0,26 to 0,89.
Crescimento e sobrevivência de duas procedências de Aspidosperma polyneuron em plantios experimentais em Bauru, SP. Growth and survival of two provenances of Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. in experimental plantation, in Bauru, SP.
Aida Sanae SATO,Israel Luiz de LIMA,Maria Teresa Zugliani TONIATO,Léo ZIMBACK
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2008,
Abstract: A explora o desordenada das matasnativas vem causando o esgotamento davariabilidade genética de muitas espécies de valorecon mico e ambiental. Desde a década de 1960,o Instituto Florestal de S o Paulo vem desenvolvendoestudos pioneiros em conserva o ex situ dealgumas espécies nativas amea adas e de interesseecon mico, como, por exemplo, Aspidospermapolyneuron, visando à conserva o, ao melhoramentogenético e ao conhecimento do seu comportamentosilvicultural. Em 1964 foi implantado um experimentocom duas procedências de A. polyneuron: Bauru(SP) e Alvorada do Sul (PR), em uma Unidade deConserva o do Instituto Florestal, em Bauru/SP.Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso,com nove plantas por parcela, espa amento 3 x 3 me seis repeti es. Em 2006, foram avaliados odiametro à altura do peito (DAP, cm), altura total(HT, m), forma do fuste (F), volume cilíndricoindividual (VCi, m3), volume cilíndrico por hectare(VCha, m3 ha-1) e sobrevivência (S, %). Os resultadosdemonstraram que a procedência Bauru apresentoumaior produ o volumétrica de madeira por hectare(VCha) e que os valores das demais variáveis n odiferiram estatisticamente entre as duas procedências.As informa es obtidas neste estudo s oimportantes para fornecer subsídios para avaliar aviabilidade de plantios comerciais e experimentaisde A. polyneuron visando à conserva o e aomelhoramento genético desta espécie.The disorderly exploitation of nativeforests has caused the depletion of the geneticvariability of many species of economic andenvironmental value. Since the 1960 decade,the Forestry Institute of S o Paulo has beendeveloping pioneering studies of ex situconservation of some endangered native treespecies and with economic interests, as for example,Aspidosperma polyneuron aiming the conservation,the tree breeding and the knowledge of thesilvicultural behavior. In 1964 an experiment withtwo provenances was implanted: A. polyneuron,Bauru (SP) and A. polyneuron, Alvorada do Sul(PR) in a Conservation Unit of the Forest Institute,in Bauru/SP. The trial was established in acomplete randomized block design with nine treesin square plots, spacing 3 x 3 m and with sixreplications. In 2006, the variables were evaluated:diameter at breast height (DBH, cm), total height(HT, m), stem form (SF), individual cylindricalvolume (VCi, m3), cylindrical volume per hectare(VCha, m3 ha-1) and survival (%). The resultsdemonstrated that the Bauru provenance presentedgreater volumetric production of wood per ha andthat the values of the other variable were notsignificantly different between the two provenance
Estrutura genética de peroba (Aspidosperma polyneuron) no Estado de S o Paulo, Brasil. Genetic structure of Aspidosperma polyneuron in the State of S o Paulo, Brazil.
Léo ZIMBACK,Edson Seizo MORI,Paulo Yoshio KAGEYAMA,Hideyo AOKI
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2011,
Abstract: A estrutura genética de Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell Arg. (Apocynaceae)foi estudada utilizando a análise de marcadores microssatélites, nas localidades de Bauru,Gália, Avaré, Piracicaba, Valinhos, Teodoro Sampaio, Botucatu, Porto Ferreira, municípiosdo Estado de S o Paulo, e Selvíria (Mato Grosso do Sul) onde foram coletadas folhas paraextra o de DNA da popula o de cada local. Foram obtidos sete locos polimórficos e quatromonomórficos. Analisando os locos polimórficos, observou-se que o número de alelosvariou de dois a seis, que demonstraram uma alta heterozigosidade (ho = 0,5209). Em oitopopula es estudadas, os coeficientes de fixa o f foram negativos com média de -0,0173 dasnove popula es e a fixa o total F foi 0,1034, enquanto o valor de coancestralidade θ p entrepopula es foi 0,1187. Foram também obtidos valores de fixa o dentro de popula es FIS(-0,0669), fixa o total FIT (0,0747) e fixa o genética entre popula es com FST (0,1343) eGST (Hedrick) (0,4875). O fluxo gênico médio obtido Nm foi 1,6121. Exibe estrutura genéticatípica de espécie alógama, com baixo coeficiente de endogamia e alta heterozigosidade, comisolamento entre popula es. A popula o Piracicaba indicou a maior eros o genética eisolamento; as outras popula es ainda mostram a variabilidade original para coletas visandoà conserva o e melhoramento genético.The genetic structure of Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell Arg. (Apocynaceae)was studied with SSR marker analysis, in Bauru, Gália, Avaré, Piracicaba, Valinhos, TeodoroSampaio, Botucatu, Porto Ferreira (S o Paulo State cities), and Selvíria city (Mato Grosso doSul State), where leaves were collected for extracting DNA from the population of each site.Seven polymorphic and four monomorphic loci were obtained. Analyzing polymorphic loci,allele number ranged from two to six alleles, and showed high heterozigosity (ho = 0.5209).In eight populations the endogamy inbreeding coefficient f was negative, the nine populationsaverage was -0.0173, and total inbreeding coefficient F was 0.1034, meanwhile the coancestryvalue θ p among populations was 0.1187. Values of fixation within population FIS (-0.0669),total inbreeding FIT (0.0747), genetic fixation among populations with FST (0.1343) andGST (Hedrick) (0.4875) index were also obtained. The average gene flow Nm was 1.6121.It displays genetic structure typical of allogamous species with low inbreeding coefficientand high heterozygosity, with isolation between populations. Piracicaba population showedthe greatest genetic erosion and isolation, the other populations still remain the ori
Efeito do espa amento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthe parviflora Benth (cora o-de-negro) aos 42 anos, em Bauru, SP. Effect of the spacing in the development of Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. (cora o-de-negro) of 42 year-old grown, in Bauru, SP.
Israel Luiz de LIMA,Maria Teresa Zugliani TONIATO,Aida Sanae SATO,Léo ZIMBACK
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2010,
Abstract: No Brasil, plantios de espécies nativas visando à explora o comercial s o raros, devido ao crescimento lento e à falta de informa es silviculturais e oferta de sementes e mudas de boa qualidade. Dessa forma, no ano de 1964 foi implantado umexperimento visando avaliar os efeitos do espa amento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthae parviflora, que é uma espécie de crescimento lento, na Esta o Ecológica de Bauru, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, comcinco tratamentos e cinco repeti es. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos seguintes espa amentos: 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 2,0 m; 2,5 m x 2,5 m e 3,0 m x 3,0 m, tendo sido avaliados o diametro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual, volume por hectare e a sobrevivência. Os resultados demonstraram que os espa amentos n o influenciaram asobrevivência, mas produziram efeitos no diametro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual e volume por hectare. Com o aumento do espa amento, houvemaior incremento nos valores das três primeiras variáveis, ocorrendo o inverso na última. Possivelmente, o uso de espa amentos iniciais mais adensados e o emprego de desbastes seletivos e sucessivos resultariamemmaior propor o de madeira e melhor qualidade.In Brazil, planting of native species aiming at the commercial exploration is rare, due to the slow growth, the lack of silvicultural information and supply of seeds and seedling of superior quality. On account of this, in 1964 an experiment aiming to evaluate the effects of planting spacings on growing of Poecilanthae parviflora, which is a species of slow growth, was implanted in the Ecological Station of Bauru, SP. The trial was established in a complete-randomized block-design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of the following spacings: 1.0 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.5 m; 2.0 m x 2.0 m; 2.5 m x 2.5 m and 3.0 m x 3.0 m, which were evaluated at the breast height diameter, total height, individual volume, volume for hectare and the survival. The results demonstrated that the diameter at breast height, individual volume and volume for hectare has been influenced by the spacing. With the increase of the spacing, it had greater increment in the values of the three first variables, the opposite occurred in the last one. The survival however was not influenced by the spacing. Possibly, the use of more dense initial spacing and the use of selective and successive thinning can produce higher proportion of wood and better quality.
“Datamining” dos genes da celulose sintase relacionados com ESTs de Eucalyptus spp. (Nota Científica). Cellulose synthase genes dataming related with Eucalyptus spp. expressed sequence tags. (SCIENTIFIC NOTE)
Léo ZIMBACK,Edson Seizo MORI,Mário Luiz Teixeira de MORAES,Edson Luiz FURTADO
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2008,
Abstract: Trata-se de um estudo sobre “datamining”envolvendo genes ligados ao crescimento decontrole n o hormonal, utilizando o banco dedados de ESTs de eucalipto, efetuado atravésdo Projeto Genoma do Eucalipto (FORESTs)comparados ao nível de aminoácidos. Foramidentificados os clusters de ESTsEGBGFB1211D01.g, EGEZRT6201E10.g,EGCCFB1220G07.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQST2006A06.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQRT3001H05.b e EGBFRT3106G11.g,similares às proteínas de celulose sintase e suassubunidades controlando o crescimento emArabidopsis thaliana, Gossipium hirsutum,Populus tremuloides, Zea mays e Nicotiana alata,registradas no National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI, informa o valiosa parafuturos programas de melhoramento genético dogênero Eucalyptus.This is a study about data mining ofexpressed sequence tags (ESTs) involved withcellulose synthase growth effect genes resultedfrom the Eucalyptus ESTs Genome Project(FORESTs) compared at aminoacids level. Using asequencing of derived from cDNAs librariesinduced and not induced by bacteria, wereidentified EST clusters EGBGFB1211D01.g,EGEZRT6201E10.g, EGCCFB1220G07.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQST2006A06.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQRT3001H05.b, andEGBFRT3106G11.g, similar to cellulose synthaseproteins controlling growth effect in Arabidopsisthaliana, Gossipium hirsutum, Populustremuloides, Zea mays, and Nicotiana alata,registered on National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI. These mining results areimportant to improve Eucalyptus breeding programs.
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