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OALib Journal期刊

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Termination of Organogenesis as Intrinsic Constraint on Animal Development and Evolution: A Theory  [PDF]
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101646
Abstract: In this article, it is pointed out with integrative analysis that organogenesis manifests limitation in time and possession of termination, while infinite cell proliferation called as cancer and tumor is lethal. Besides, it is reversely demonstrated from a few notable constant outgrowing skin derivatives that termination is required for organogenesis inside the animal. Accordingly, it is suggested that the requirement for organogenetic termination would be the new intrinsic constraint for animal development and heredity. In further, it is suggested from comparative analysis that this new intrinsic constraint would not influence the temporal and spatial reorganization of morphogenesis, but place restrictions on alteration of organogenetic mechanisms themselves. Especially, it is pointed out that addition of new induction mechanism or elimination of termination mechanism would usually cause endless organogenesis and lethality, subjecting to restriction by the intrinsic constraint, while addition of new termination mechanism or elimination of induction mechanism not be affected by the intrinsic constraint, occurring more frequently in evolution. In accordance, it is identified this intrinsic constraint as the pertaining cause for frequent occurrence of developmental parallelism and terminal addition in animal evolution as recapitulation. In this article, it is also provided with some animal models to demonstrate the evolution of organogenetic termination as key developmental control, such as the hair and nail in humans, the sexual dimorphism in mammary glands, the epidermal scale in reptiles, the tail metamorphosis in amphibians, and the variation in limb digits in vertebrates.
Semantic Memory Association, Procedural Grammar Syntax and Episodic Modality Coordination as Three Interactive Neural Processes Organizing Language: A Model  [PDF]
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101718
Abstract: In the declarative/procedural model of language, it assumes the semantic words as declarative memories while the grammatical syntax as procedural rules, whereas it is herein suggested that different words associate with different cortical modalities, so that it is necessary to consider the modality coordination of words episodic in meanings in sentences. In evidence, stuttering is intact on grammar but impaired on fluency, so that the dopaminergic system, with antagonists alleviating and genes phenotyping stuttering, may involve linguistic modality disorganization. Reversely, the gamma band correlates with word congruency, so that the cholinergic projections may help cortical modality coordination. There are present discourse deficits, so that story narration also requires cortical modality coordination. In these respects, semantic memory association, procedural grammar syntax and episodic modality coordination interact to organize language from word to sentence to story, so that it herein extends the present declarative/procedural model underlying two kinds of neural processes to semantic/syntactic/episodic model of three kinds of neural processes for depiction and simulation of language.
Regulation of Both Cell State and Gene Expression with Nutrient Gradient as Conserved Mechanism Differentiating the Cell Fates for Embryonic Gastrulation: A Theory  [PDF]
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102348
Abstract: In this article, it is newly suggested the regulation from nutrient gradient on both cell metabolic state and expressional gene classes as the conserved mechanism differentiating the cell fates for formation of the three germ layers of gastrula in animals. As a new theory, it is supported by the totipotency and pluripotency of early embryonic cells and cultured stem cells to be regulated by nutrients, as well as by the universal formation of nutrient gradient during gastrulation in various animals. Besides, it is also supported by the subsequent phenotypic fates of three germ layers of gastrula, with the endoderm manifesting expression of gene classes in nutritious condition and giving rise to the epithelium of digestive and respiratory system; the ectoderm manifesting expression of gene classes with nutrient dependence and environmental effect, and giving rise to the nervous and epithelial tissues; the mesoderm lying between them and giving rise to the muscle and adipose. Likewise, it is directly supported by the different nutrient effects onto such trilaminar differentiation in various cultured stem cells. Finally, it is in further supported by the evolutionary effects of nutrients in preserving the trilaminar fates in gastrula versus relative permitting the variations in anteroposterior determination. Conclusively, it is identified the nutrient gradient as an important mechanism to partially differentiate the cell fates for embryonic gastrulation.
Advocacy for extension of microwave and infrared to detect the brain activities
Zi-Jian Cai
Journal of Medical Diagnostic Methods , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2168-9784.1000188
Abstract: Microwaves and infrareds have been employed as noninvasive tools to image brain structures. Herein I present a case report that, with microwaves or infrareds, the US satellites have acquired the ability to trace the individual persons on the ground on their acoustic activities, and even plausibly their brain activities. Therefore, it is herein suggested that, to decrease down the pulse energy to the brain level while increase the size and sensitivity of antenna, it would also be possible for companies to make the microwave-induced thermoacoustic detector on brain activities.
Extending psychoanalysis with theories on sleep functions
Zi-Jian Cai
Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy , 2015, DOI: 10.4172/2167-0277.1000217
Abstract: Cai’s sleep theories suggested the slow-wave sleep(SWS) to regulate the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid-eye-movement(REM) sleep in opposite, which would help revise and extend the psychoanalysis in both theory and therapy.
Principles Derived from Neurolinguistics of Brain for Design of Translation Machines  [PDF]
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102704
Abstract:
Recently, it was extended by the author the declarative/procedural model to a new semantic/ syntactic/episodic model for language, extended to encompass the sentential meanings to the neural linguistic processes. In this article, it is applied this new semantic/syntactic/episodic model of brain to derive three feasible principles to direct machine translation respectively. First, it is necessary to establish the dictionary for translation of words and phrases. Second, it is also necessary to read out the grammar of language to be translated from and to comply with the grammar of language to be translated into, arranging such parts of speech as noun, verb and adjective into order. Third, it is in further necessary to determine one correct meaning of some words of multiple meanings by matching them with statistical associations with others. Whereas, due to the lack of scientific guidance from neurolinguistics, it has mostly been adopted two linguistic processes in the present machine translation, either with only word and grammar translation, or with only word and statistical translation, and therefore has been unsatisfactory. Through comparison, it is pointed out that the machine translation with three principles would exceed the human brain in all three linguistic aspects respectively. In this regard, herein it is newly formulated the three principles derived from the semantic/syntactic/episodic neurolinguistic model of brain for machine translation. Prospectively, it is a significant progression leading the new technological leap of artificial intelligence with acquisition of ability in natural language equal to and even superior to that of human brain.
The Electrophysiological Memory Function of Hippocampus Different from O’Keefe and Mosers
Zi-Jian Cai
Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology , 2016, DOI: 10.4172/2155-9562.1000362
Abstract: The electrophysiology of hippocampus demonstrated by O’Keefe and Mosers is yet unattainable to explain the same memory function of mammillary bodies. The limbic-reticular coupling theory I proposed previously suggested the descending limbic system regulate the ascending reticular systems to consolidate and recall declarative memories. On electrophysiology, the hippocampal CA3 neurons can regulate the raphe nuclei and ventral tegmental area in their activities, while the cholinergic-mediated gamma wave is also coupled to theta activities. In this way, through these limbic-reticular electrophysiological couplings, the hippocampus can synchronously recall several components of a memory dispersed in various cortical areas. Therefore, here is outlined the alternative part of hippocampal electrophysiology on memory recall different from O’Keefe and Mosers.
Two types of Korsakoff alcoholism in reference to habenula: A new opinion
Zi-Jian Cai
Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience , 2016,
Abstract: Herein it is newly suggested that there are at least two types of Korsakoff alcoholism, one resulting from alcohol intake as regular appetitive habit, while another for relief of psychological stress. It is required the habenula intact to control the intake volume of alcohol, so that it is required the habenula intact for the regular appetitive habit without vomit. Whereas for relief of psychological stress, it is necessary to inhibit the activities of habenula in mediating stress and depression, which would gradually result in the degeneration of limbic input to the habenula. In this regard, it is classified the Korsakoff alcoholism into two types at early stage in reference to habenula.
The Advantage of Asymmetrical Handedness in Cooperation with Heartbeat: A Hypothesis from the Chinese Member of Satellite Group  [PDF]
Zi-Jian Cai
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103253
Abstract:
Recently, it was published the book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN 978-3-659-76798-2), compiling the progressions in physics manifested in television, made by the world people while led notably by the author and the members in the world satellite networks from India, Zhejiang and USA. Besides these significant achievements, it has also been made many activities and achievements on neural sciences. In this article, it is relayed, via the author as the main holder of them, a new hypothesis raised by a Chinese Member of satellite group, which has also been manifested in television already, but required to be transformed into written form for scientists to read and cite. It was newly suggested that the advantage of asymmetrical handedness might correlate to its long-term cooperation with heartbeat during muscular contraction and limb movement. It is in further supported herein by the evidence in followings: 1) the developmental canalization to heart asymmetry in vertebrate evolution; 2) the decreased survival fitness of left-handedness from coronary artery disease; 3) the higher frequencies of heart irregularities in individuals of left handedness than right handedness; 4) the laterality of brain in control of heart rate variability. It is additionally speculated that the asymmetry of heart in fish without limb might likewise correlate to the long-term compatibility between the heartbeat and contralateral muscular contraction. In this regard, it is concluded that this hypothesis from the Chinese Member of satellite group may become an important solution toward understanding the advantage of both bodily and brain asymmetry.
Proposal of the Electromagnetic Structures of the Most Important Particles from Decays
Zi-Jian Cai
Research & Reviews: Journal of Pure and Applied Physics , 2016, DOI: -
Abstract: Recently, it was published the book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN978-3-659-76798-2), compiling the progressions in physics made by the world people, manifested in television while led notably by me and the Members in the world satellite networks from India, Zhejiang and USA. It was achieved many important progressions, such as the spatially localized electromagnetic mass structure; the electromagnetic multi-hairy structure; the electromagnetic orienting force; the thermodynamic strong force from electromagnetic multi-hairy hybrid; the weak processes from hybrid split; the gravitational force as electromagnetic curving and shifting red from electromagnetic orienting force; and so on; electromagnetic unifying the four forces. It was also determined the structures of photon,positron/electron, π mesons, μ leptons and neutrinos. In this article, from these achievements and decay products, it is attempted to further propose the electromagnetic structures of particles most important in physics, with conservation of energy (mass), charge and spin. It is classified the combined baryons into those based on proton such as the proton, neutron, Λ0 baryon,∑ baryons, and Ξ baryons; those based on kaons from colliding pieces such as the kaons, η baryons, charm quarks, and bottom quarks; those containing the W/Z bosons with the wavelength equivalent to hybrid interval, such as the W/Z/Higgs bosons and top quarks. Besides, it is pointed out that the τneutrino can adjust the angle between the adjacent hybrid areas in natural atomic nucleus. For the convenience of physicists to refer to, it is listed these electromagnetic structures into tables.
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