Abstract:
The neuroendocrine system governs essential survival and homeostatic functions. For example, growth is needed for development. Thermoregulation maintains optimal core temperature in a changing environment. Reproduction ensures species survival. Stress and immune responses enable an organism to overcome external and internal threats. The circadian system regulates arousal and sleep such that vegetative and active functions do not overlap. All of these functions require a significant portion of the body’s energy. As the integrator of the neuroendocrine system, the hypothalamus carefully assesses the energy status of the body in order to appropriately partition resources to provide for each system without compromising the others. While doing so the hypothalamus must ensure that adequate glucose levels are preserved for brain function since glucose is the primary fuel of the brain. To this end, the hypothalamus contains specialized glucose sensing neurons which are scattered throughout the nuclei controlling distinct neuroendocrine functions. We hypothesize that these neurons play a key role in enabling the hypothalamus to partition energy to meet these peripheral survival needs without endangering the brain’s glucose supply. The goal of this review is to describe the varied mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in neurons within discrete hypothalamic nuclei. We will then evaluate the way in which peripheral energy status regulates glucose sensitivity. For example, during energy deficit such as fasting specific hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons become sensitized to decreased glucose. This increases the gain of the information relay when glucose availability is a greater concern for the brain. Finally, changes in glucose sensitivity under pathological conditions (e.g., recurrent insulin-hypoglycemia, diabetes) will be addressed. The overall goal of this review is to place glucose sensing neurons within the context of hypothalamic control of neuroendocrine function.

Abstract:
Anderson's idea of a (short-ranged) resonating valence bond (RVB) spin liquid has been the first ever proposal of what we now call a topologically ordered phase. Since then, a wealth of exactly solvable lattice models have been constructed that have topologically ordered ground states. For a long time, however, it has been difficult to realize Anderson's original vision in such solvable models, according to which the ground state has an unbroken SU(2) spin rotational symmetry and is dominated by fluctuation of singlet bonds. The kagome lattice is the simplest lattice geometry for which parent Hamiltonians stabilizing a prototypical spin-1/2 short-ranged RVB wave function has been constructed and strong evidence has been given that this state belongs to a topological phase. The uniqueness of the desired RVB-type ground states has, however, not been rigorously proven for the simplest possible such Hamiltonian, which acts on 12 spins at a time. Rather, this uniqueness has been demonstrated for a longer ranged (19-site) variant of this Hamiltonian by Schuch et al., via making contact with powerful results for projected entangled-pair states. In this paper, we extend this result to the 12-site Hamiltonian. Our result is based on numerical studies on finite clusters, for which we demonstrate a "ground state intersection property" with implications for arbitrary system size. We also review the relations between various constructions schemes for RVB parent-Hamiltonians found in the literature.

Abstract:
We study the local and topological features of Berry phases associated with the adiabatic transport of vortices in a d-wave superconductor of lattice fermions. At half filling, where the local Berry curvature must vanish due to symmetries, the phase associated with the exchange of two vortices is found to vanish as well, implying that vortices behave as bosons. Away from half filling, and in the limit where the magnetic length is large compared to the lattice constant, the local Berry curvature gives rise to an intricate flux pattern within the large magnetic unit cell. This renders the Berry phase associated with an exchange of two vortices highly path dependent. However, it is shown that "statistical" fluxes attached to the vortex positions are still absent. Despite the complicated profile of the Berry curvature away from half filling, we show that the average flux density associated with this curvature is tied to the average particle density. This is familiar from dual theories of bosonic systems, even though in the present case, the underlying particles are fermions.

Abstract:
We study the second quantized -or guiding center- description of the torus Laughlin state. Our main focus is the change of the guiding center degrees of freedom with the torus geometry, which we show to be generated by a two-body operator. We demonstrate that this operator can be used to evolve the full torus Laughlin state at given modular parameter \tau\ from its simple (Slater-determinant) thin torus limit, thus giving rise to a new presentation of the torus Laughlin state in terms of its "root partition" and an exponential of a two-body operator. This operator therefore generates in particular the adiabatic evolution between Laughlin states on regular tori and the quasi-one-dimensional thin torus limit. We make contact with the recently introduced notion of a "Hall viscosity" for fractional quantum Hall states, to which our two-body operator is naturally related, and which serves as a demonstration of our method to generate the Laughlin state on the torus.

Abstract:
Recent theoretical work on time-periodically kicked Hofstadter model found robust counter-propagating edge modes. It remains unclear how ubiquitously such anomalous modes can appear, and what dictates their robustness against disorder. Here we shed further light on the nature of these modes by analyzing a simple type of periodic driving where the hopping along one spatial direction is modulated sinusoidally with time while the hopping along the other spatial direction is kept constant. We obtain the phase diagram for the quasienergy spectrum at flux 1/3 as the driving frequency $\omega$ and the hopping anisotropy are varied. A series of topologically distinct phases with counter-propagating edge modes appear due to the harmonic driving, similar to the case of a periodically kicked system studied earlier. We analyze the time dependence of the pair of Floquet edge states localized at the same edge, and compare their Fourier components in the frequency domain. In the limit of small modulation, one of the Floquet edge mode within the pair can be viewed as the edge mode originally living in the other energy gap shifted in quasienergy by $\hbar \omega$, i.e., by absorption or emission of a "photon" of frequency $\omega$. Our result suggests that counter-propagating Floquet edge modes are generic features of periodically driven integer quantum Hall systems, and not tied to any particular driving protocol. It also suggests that the Floquet edge modes would remain robust to any static perturbations that do not destroy the chiral edge modes of static quantum Hall states.

Abstract:
Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the $p$-band of the optical square lattice. We derive the spin-orbital exchange for quarter filling of the $p$-band when the density fluctuations are suppressed, and show it frustrates the development of long range spin order. Exact diagonalization indicates a spin-disordered ground state with ferro-orbital order. The system dynamically decouples into individual Heisenberg spin chains, each realizing a Luttinger liquid accessible at higher temperatures compared to atoms confined to the $s$-band.

Abstract:
Towards next generation communications, Energy Efficiency (EE) attracts lots of attentions nowadays. Some innovative techniques have been proposed in prior literatures, especially the sleep mechanism of base station (BS). Yet how to sleep and when to sleep are still vague concepts. Another, most of the studies focus on the cellular section or core networks separately while integral and comprehensive version is neglected in prior literatures. In this paper,the integral optimization structure is studied based on cloud radio network (C-RAN) and information centric network (ICN) that raised latest combined with the sleep mode. The original C-RAN and ICN structures are amended in terms of reality application of sleep techniques. While adopting the sleep techniques both in core and cellular, apart from previous works, a transition smooth method that solve the current surge problems which is ignored before is further proposed. Based on the new method, it will be much more feasible to adopt the sleep techniques by knowing the appropriate occasion for transition between sleep and idle mode. Comprehensive computer based simulation results demonstrate that this integer proposal achieves better EE feature with negligible impact on quality of service (QoS) of user equipments (UEs).

Abstract:
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has been proposed to enhance the Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and cell-edge capacity. This paper considers the massive Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) with Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) encoding. The close-form expression of capacity of the massive MIMO with NOMA is given here. Apart from the previous Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) method, the Power Hard Limiter (PHD) is introduced here for better reality implement.

Abstract:
The combination of energy harvesting and large-scale multiple antenna technologies provides a promising solution for improving the energy efficiency (EE) by exploiting renewable energy sources and reducing the transmission power per user and per antenna. However, the introduction of energy harvesting capabilities into large-scale multiple antenna systems poses many new challenges for energy-efficient system design due to the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources and limited battery capacity. Furthermore, the total manufacture cost and the sum power of a large number of radio frequency (RF) chains can not be ignored, and it would be impractical to use all the antennas for transmission. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient antenna selection and power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE subject to the constraint of user's quality of service (QoS). An iterative offline optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the non-convex EE optimization problem by exploiting the properties of nonlinear fractional programming. The relationships among maximum EE, selected antenna number, battery capacity, and EE-SE tradeoff are analyzed and verified through computer simulations.