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The COST Action FP0903 “Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment (MAFor)” involved 29 countries and created a platform for information exchange with experts from different fields, with the following main objectives: 1) to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment and 2) to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modelling at comprehensive forest research sites. In particular, MAFor translated the existing European knowledge on climate and air pollution dynamics into prospects for forest research and monitoring, with focus on the carbon, ozone, nitrogen and water budgets. The aim of this paper is to summarize scientific activities and achievements of MAFor: the creation of a meta-database for highlighting the available data and integrating the information from European forest research/monitoring networks; the development of a new concept of forest sites for research and monitoring (Supersites); the identification of the main knowledge gaps; and the definition of priorities for forest adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment. The action also increased European capacity building in this sector by organizing five conferences, granting 64 short-term scientific missions, organizing four training schools and publishing more than 100 papers.