Abstract:
The higher education system in Turkey suffered from
capacity problem during the 1980s and the 1990s. After the election in 2002, to
solve the problem, the Justice and Development Party governments have invested
in higher education through opening new universities, increasing the total
capacity in higher education, and sending more students abroad especially for
graduate studies. In this paper, noting the conservative structure of the
Justice and Development Party, we determine whether a dilemma exists between
these liberal practices and the party’s conservatism. By constructing a one-period
sequential game, we show that heavy investment in higher education by the
Justice and Development Party is not contradictory and, in fact, inevitable, as
long as it tries to maximize its vote in the short-medium run.

Abstract:
his study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) and Kinetin (KIN) pre-sowing treatments on the germination and emergence of 3 winter-wheat cultivars. Thus, the seeds soaked with GA3 and kinetin were germinated using 0, 94, 164 and 240 mM NaCl solutions in pod soil. The percentage seedling emergence of wheat genotypes decreased and delayed with salinity stress conditions. The pre-treatments of hormones, especially GA3, not only hastened seedling emergence but also overcame the germination-delaying effect of the high concentrations of NaCl in all investigated wheat genotypes except for initial germination of Kisla domestic variety. Exogenous kinetin treatment was not as effective as GA3. Seedling growth parameters under salt-stress conditions decreased with increased salt stress. Under salinity conditions, GA3 was significantly stimulated root length and shoot height in Kisla domestic variety and B-22 line, respectively.

Abstract:
The levels of high temperatures (35, 38 and 41°C in 7 day/night) used in this study and decreased or delayed the germination of maize, rice and sorghum seeds. Growth regulator pre-treatments (especially GA3) decreased this inhibitive effect of the high temperature to a great extends at 35 and 38°C in maize and rice seeds. In generally, no significant differences were detected between the control and kinetin treatments in maize and rice at 41°C. GA3 increased rapidity germination and stimulated seed germination at all using temperate treatments in species. The case of sorghum for rapidity and final seed germination, plant growth regulators were effective thermal treatments at 38°C and over temperature. The high temperature was shortened the elongation of radicle and coleoptile and prevented at 35, 38 and 41°C. GA3 enormously maintained its stimulative effect observed on the coleoptile and radicle emergence and elongation except at 41°C in rice. KIN had the lower the elongation of radicle when averaged across the GA3 and control at high temperature conditions in all species.

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate, the effect of pre-sowing the plant growth regulators (kinetin and gibberellic acid) treatments on micro nutrients composition of young wheat and barley plants under saline conditions. Barley and wheat seeds were used as seed material. Before sowing, the seeds were soaked in distilled water (Control, C) and in aqueous solutions containing growth regulators in predetermined concentrations (0.5 mM Kinetin (KIN) and 2.0 mM Gibberellic Acid (GA3)). The soaked seeds were sown in the soil containing four different levels of NaCl (0 (no NaCl), 94, 164 and 240 mM NaCl). In wheat, iron and manganes content decreased as salinity levels increases. Zinc content increased as NaCl concentration up to 164 mM and the highest Zn value obtained from GA3 treatment in 94 mM NaCl concentration in barley. Generally, GA3 and Kinetin applications increased Fe, Mn and Zn contents in barley compared to the control. However, the highest values of Fe and Mn and Zn in wheat were obtained from 0 NaCl and treatment that had no hormone.

Abstract:
The effects of plant density and tiller removal were determined on yield and agronomic characters of 3 sweet corn cultivars during the growing periods in 1997 and 1998 in Isparta plain in Turkey. Ear yield varied depending on cultivars and the highest ear yield was obtained for cv. Merit in 1997 and 1998 (13.8 and 11.8 t ha-1, respectively). Number of tiller plant 1, ear length, ear diameter and filled ear length decreased in high plant density (9.5 plants/m2). Plant height and ear yield increased as the plant density increased. While tiller removal did not affect statistically significant any characters except the filled ear length in sweet corn varieties in 1997. It reduced plant height and ear yield in the second experimental year.

Abstract:
In this paper, kuudul, which could be defined as a type of anecdote, and kuudul artists areintroduced It also informs about Nasreddin Hoca (Apendi), who is considered as a kuudul, and hisposition in Kirghiz literature and people. Kuudul, rooted in the old times, is one of the arts thathas a great prestige among the Kirghiz. Skillful kuudul artist relaxes people by making them laughand caressing their souls with their attitudes towards circumstances, wit and creativity. Kuudulsalso inveigh those people, who are mean, ignorant and greedy, as well as making fun of them inorder to fight against social injustices. Therefore, they have gained great prestige in the society.Amongst the important kuuduls of Kirghiz we could name these: Coo bay Borso Uulu, K k t yToto Uulu, Kara unak ld r Uulu, Kuyru uk mürzak Uulu, Beknazar and ar en.The Kirghiz refer the type of anectode (funnies) that is known as Nasrettin Hoca in Anotoliaas Apendi and Koco Nas r and consider these also among kuuduls. Or when defining kuudul, theyalso mention Nasrettin Hoca. Yet, they name the stories that either told by Nasrettin Hoca orpresumed to be told by him as anekdote. They also use the term, ‘angeme’ which could beconsidered to be meant as ‘story’, for Nasrettin Hoca’s funnies/anecdotes and call them as‘angemes of Apendi’.

Abstract:
In this paper, we present and analyse two Hopfield-like nonlinear networks, in continuous-time and discrete-time respectively. The proposed network is based on an autonomous linear system with a symmetric weight matrix, which is designed to be unstable, and a nonlinear function stabilizing the whole network thanks to a manipulated state variable called``ultimate SIR''. This variable is observed to be equal to the traditional Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) definition in telecommunications engineering. The underlying linear system of the proposed continuous-time network is $\dot{{\mathbf x}} = {\mathbf B} {\mathbf x}$ where {\bf B} is a real symmetric matrix whose diagonal elements are fixed to a constant. The nonlinear function, on the other hand, is based on the defined system variables called ``SIR''s. We also show that the ``SIR''s of all the states converge to a constant value, called ``system-specific Ultimate SIR''; which is equal to $\frac{r}{\lambda_{max}}$ where $r$ is the diagonal element of matrix ${\bf B}$ and $\lambda_{max}$ is the maximum (positive) eigenvalue of diagonally-zero matrix $({\bf B} - r{\bf I})$, where ${\bf I}$ denotes the identity matrix. The same result is obtained in its discrete-time version as well. Computer simulations for binary associative memory design problem show the effectiveness of the proposed network as compared to the traditional Hopfield Networks.

Abstract:
In the first part in [12], we present and analyse a Sigmoid-based "Signal-to-Interference Ratio, (SIR)" balancing dynamic network, called Sgm"SIR"NN, which exhibits similar properties as traditional Hopfield NN does, in continuous time. In this second part, we present the corresponding network in discrete time: We show that in the proposed discrete-time network, called D-Sgm"SIR"NN, the defined error vector approaches to zero in a finite step in both synchronous and asynchronous work modes. Our investigations show that i) Establishing an analogy to the distributed (sigmoid) power control algorithm in [10] and [11] if the defined fictitious "SIR" is equal to 1 at the converged eqiulibrium point, then it is one of the prototype vectors. ii) The D-Sgm"SIR"NN exhibits similar features as discrete-time Hopfield NN does. iii) Establishing an analogy to the traditional 1-bit fixed-step power control algorithm, the corresponding "1-bit" network, called Sign"SIR"NN network, is also presented.

Abstract:
Continuous-time Hopfield network has been an important focus of research area since 1980s whose applications vary from image restoration to combinatorial optimization from control engineering to associative memory systems. On the other hand, in wireless communications systems literature, power control has been intensively studied as an essential mechanism for increasing the system performance. A fully distributed power control algorithm (DPCA), called Sigmoid DPCA, is presented by Uykan in [10] and [11], which is obtained by discretizing the continuous-time system. In this paper, we present a Sigmoid-based "Signal-to-Interference Ratio, (SIR)" balancing dynamic networks, called Sgm"SIR"NN, which includes both the Sigmoid power control algorithm (SgmDPCA) and the Hopfield neural networks, two different areas whose scope of interest, motivations and settings are completely different. It's shown that the Sgm"SIR"N5C5C5C5C5CN exhibits features which are generally attributed to Hopfield Networks. Computer simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed network as compared to traditional Hopfield Network.

Abstract:
It's well-known that in a traditional discrete-time autonomous linear systems, the eigenvalues of the weigth (system) matrix solely determine the stability of the system. If the spectral radius of the system matrix is larger than 1, then the system is unstable. In this paper, we examine the linear systems with symmetric weight matrix whose spectral radius is larger than 1. The author introduced a dynamic-system-version of "Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR)" in nonlinear networks in [7] and [8] and in continuous-time linear networks in [9]. Using the same "SIR" concept, we, in this paper, analyse the "SIR" of the states in the following two $N$-dimensional discrete-time autonomous linear systems: 1) The system ${\mathbf x}(k+1) = \big({\bf I} + \alpha (-r {\bf I} + {\bf W}) \big) {\mathbf x}(k)$ which is obtained by discretizing the autonomous continuous-time linear system in \cite{Uykan09a} using Euler method; where ${\bf I}$ is the identity matrix, $r$ is a positive real number, and $\alpha >0$ is the step size. 2) A more general autonomous linear system descibed by ${\mathbf x}(k+1) = -\rho {\mathbf I + W} {\mathbf x}(k)$, where ${\mathbf W}$ is any real symmetric matrix whose diagonal elements are zero, and ${\bf I}$ denotes the identity matrix and $\rho$ is a positive real number. Our analysis shows that: 1) The "SIR" of any state converges to a constant value, called "Ultimate SIR", in a finite time in the above-mentioned discrete-time linear systems. 2) The "Ultimate SIR" in the first system above is equal to $\frac{\rho}{\lambda_{max}}$ where $\lambda_{max}$ is the maximum (positive) eigenvalue of the matrix ${\bf W}$. These results are in line with those of \cite{Uykan09a} where corresponding continuous-time linear system is examined. 3) The "Ultimate SIR" ...