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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1277 matches for " Zeeshan Fatima "
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Novel Regulatory Mechanisms of Pathogenicity and Virulence to Combat MDR in Candida albicans
Saif Hameed,Zeeshan Fatima
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/240209
Abstract: Continuous deployment of antifungals in treating infections caused by dimorphic opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans has led to the emergence of drug resistance resulting in cross-resistance to many unrelated drugs, a phenomenon termed multidrug resistance (MDR). Despite the current understanding of major factors which contribute to MDR mechanisms, there are many lines of evidence suggesting that it is a complex interplay of multiple factors which may be contributed by still unknown mechanisms. Coincidentally with the increased usage of antifungal drugs, the number of reports for antifungal drug resistance has also increased which further highlights the need for understanding novel molecular mechanisms which can be explored to combat MDR, namely, ROS, iron, hypoxia, lipids, morphogenesis, and transcriptional and signaling networks. Considering the worrying evolution of MDR and significance of C. albicans being the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, this review summarizes these new regulatory mechanisms which could be exploited to prevent MDR development in C. albicans as established from recent studies. 1. Introduction In the last decades, the incidence of fungal infections has increased dramatically due to the rise in the number of immunocompromised patients. The most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans is Candida albicans which ranks as the fourth most common cause of hospital acquired infectious disease and is the primary cause of systemic candidiasis, with mortality rates approaching 50% [1]. The dimorphic opportunistic pathogen, C. albicans, is normally a commensal organism in humans, but when the host is unable to mount an adequate immune response, as in AIDS, organ transplant, diabetes, or in cancer patients, it results in mucosal, cutaneous, or invasive mycoses [2, 3]. Prolonged usage of antifungals in treating infections caused by C. albicans has led to the emergence of azole resistance. This acquired azole resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans mostly results in cross-resistance to many unrelated drugs, a phenomenon termed multidrug resistance (MDR) [4–6]. MDR is a serious complication during treatment of opportunistic fungal infections which poses grave concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungal drugs available [7, 8]. Fungal species have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs and some of them include an overexpression or mutations in ERG11, encoding the target enzyme of azoles lanosterol 14α-demethylase [4, 5, 9, 10], an over expression of the drug efflux pumps encoding
Sesamol: A Natural Phenolic Compound with Promising Anticandidal Potential
Moiz A. Ansari,Zeeshan Fatima,Saif Hameed
Journal of Pathogens , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/895193
Abstract: We investigated the antifungal effects of sesamol (Ses), a natural phenolic compound, and exemplified that it could be mediated through disruption of calcineurin signaling pathway in C. albicans, a human fungal pathogen. The repertoire of antifungal activity not only was limited to C. albicans and its six clinical isolates tested but also was against non-albicans species of Candida. Interestingly, the antifungal effect of Ses affects neither the MDR efflux transporter activity nor passive diffusion of drug. We found that C. albicans treated with Ses copies the phenotype displayed by cells having defect in calcineurin signaling leading to sensitivity against alkaline pH, ionic, membrane, salinity, endoplasmic reticulum, and serum stresses but remained resistant to thermal stress. Furthermore, the ergosterol levels were significantly decreased by 63% confirming membrane perturbations in response to Ses as also visualized through transmission electron micrographs. Despite the fact that Ses treatment mimics the phenotype of compromised calcineurin signaling, it was independent of cell wall integrity pathway as revealed by spot assays and the scanning electron micrographs. Taken together, the data procured from this study clearly ascertains that Ses is an effectual antifungal agent that could be competently employed in treating Candida infections. 1. Introduction Candida albicans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, is the most common cause of the invasive fungal diseases [1]. It resides normally within the host body but during the immunosuppressed or immunocompromised conditions like AIDS, cancer, and organ transplant; it can cause several diseases such as oral thrush, vulvovaginitis, esophagitis, and cutaneous infections. It is also among the most common causative agents for nosocomial infections in patients who have undergone surgery or organ transplantation, have diabetes, and take excessive antibiotics and are neutropenic [2, 3]. Some of the most common isolates from candidiasis and candidemia are C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis [4]. Among all Candida species C. albicans is the most prominent causative agent of the diseases [5]. Due to daily augmentation in cases of the patients suffering from the diseases caused by Candida species, it has become unavoidable to find the cure for this evader. Present treatment regime includes several classes of antifungal which are in use to treat the infection caused by the fungal pathogens. For instance azoles, polyenes and allylamines target ergosterol
Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of cetirizine analogues
Najma Sultana,M. Saeed Arayne,Hina Shamshad,Agha Zeeshan Mirza,Malik Asia Naz,Beenish Fatima,M. Asif,M. Ahmed Mesaik
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3233/spe-2011-0537
Abstract: Cetirizine second generation H1-receptor antagonist is an acid metabolite of hydroxyzine. Present work was based on six new analogues of cetirizine having nucleophilic substitution reaction synthetic pathway. The reactions were proceeded by replacing the scaffold on the cetirizine moiety using nucleophilic substitution reaction. The structures of analogues were confirmed using UV, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The analogues were tested for the anti-inflammatory activities on cellular immune response. Oxidative burst response of phagocytes after exposure to the analogues was found to exhibit moderate to significant inhibitory activity (23 to <3.1). However, the compounds as MPC and PPC also showed remarkable inhibitory effect on PHA activated T-cells response and may prove to be lead compounds in therapeutic world.
Causes of Change Orders in the Jordanian Construction Industry  [PDF]
Ala’a Alshdiefat, Zeeshan Aziz
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2018.64016
Abstract: Change orders are common and clearly noticeable in Jordanian construction industry. Several studies have identified change orders as significant problem in Jordanian construction projects, and they mainly cause delay and cost overrun. This situation spurs the researchers for investigating the significant causes of change orders in construction projects. Thus, this paper aims to determine the main causes of change orders in the Jordanian construction private sector which responsible for significant cost overrun. Both qualitative and quantitative methods, i.e. interview and questionnaire techniques, were used to achieve this aim. Interviews were conducted as the first stage of data collection, and the results formed the basis of the questionnaire, which was distributed across the Jordanian construction sector. Content analysis was used to analyse the interview responses, while factor analysis, correlation and the Severity Index (SI) were used to analyse the questionnaire results. The findings identified three main categories of causes of change orders in private sector, namely engineering causes, causes related to the client, and circumstances of the project, with sub-causes in each category which are related to each other in significant ways and which affect each other.
Comparative Performance of Two Islamic Banks and Two Commercial Banks
Zeeshan Farrukh
Market Forces , 2005,
The Professional Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment heals anal fissures, providing an alternative to the traditional first linetreatment of surgical sphincterotomy. Setting: Tathlith General Hospital Saudi Arabia. Period: January 2001 – April 2003. Objective: Todetermine the effectiveness and safety of topical 0.5% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the management of chronic anal fissure. Patients & methods:Individual Patients were randomized to receive 0.5%GTN paste or placebo three times per day for six weeks in addition to oral senna and/orlactulose. Patients took laxatives alone for further 6 weeks. Patients were followed every week for six weeks and then fortnightly for anothersix weeks to assess pain scores and were given advice. Results: Fifty patients were recruited in this study and 44 patients completed the trial (23 in the GTN group and 21 in the placebo group), patients who could not complete the study were excluded. At 6 weeks, 74% of patients had no pain in the GTN group as compared to the 29% in the placebo group. In 26% of cases treatment was unsuccessful. At three month follow up there was no early recurrence. The prevalence of headaches was 65% in GTN group ( reported by 15 patients) and 24% in placebo group (reported by 5 patients). Mean pain scores were lower in the GTN group as compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: The use of 0.5% GTN induces healing of chronic anal fissures and may by used as a first line of treatment in patients with chronic anal fissure. Successful treatment may come at the expense of a high incidence of headaches.
Towards Performance Measurement And Metrics Based Analysis of PLA Applications
Zeeshan Ahmed
International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications , 2010,
Abstract: This article is about a measurement analysis based approach to help software practitioners in managingthe additional level complexities and variabilities in software product line applications. The architectureof the proposed approach i.e. ZAC is designed and implemented to perform preprocessesed source codeanalysis, calculate traditional and product line metrics and visualize results in two and three dimensionaldiagrams. Experiments using real time data sets are performed which concluded with the results that theZAC can be very helpful for the software practitioners in understanding the overall structure andcomplexity of product line applications. Moreover the obtained results prove strong positive correlationbetween calculated traditional and product line measures.
AI 3D Cybug Gaming
Zeeshan Ahmed
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.
Intelligent Human Machine Interface Design for Advanced Product Life Cycle Management Systems
Zeeshan Ahmed
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1145/1838002.1838058
Abstract: Designing and implementing an intelligent and user friendly human machine interface for any kind of software or hardware oriented application is always be a challenging task for the designers and developers because it is very difficult to understand the psychology of the user, nature of the work and best suit of the environment. This research paper is basically about to propose an intelligent, flexible and user friendly machine interface for Product Life Cycle Management products or PDM Systems since studies show that usability and human computer interaction issues are a major cause of acceptance problems introducing or using such systems. Going into details of the proposition, we present prototype implementations about theme based on design requirements, designed designs and technologies involved for the development of human machine interface.
PDM based I-SOAS Data Warehouse Design
Zeeshan Ahmed
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: This research paper briefly describes the industrial contributions of Product Data Management in any organization's technical and managerial data management. Then focusing on some current major PDM based problems i.e. Static and Unintelligent Search, Platform Independent System and Successful PDM System Implementation, briefly presents a semantic based solution i.e. I-SOAS. Majorly this research paper is about to present and discuss the contributions of I-SOAS in any organization's technical and system data management.
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