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Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals
Dhiraj Kumar, Raina Dua, Ravichandran Srikanth, Shilpi Jayaswal, Zaved Siddiqui, Kanury VS Rao
BMC Research Notes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-81
Abstract: To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors.Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile.Reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases represents a key aspect of signal transduction [1-6]. Although information on the role of phosphatases in regulating individual signaling modules continues to accumulate, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is lacking [7-9]. To explore this we examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. We found that each phosphat
Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Expressed by Regulating Metabolic Thresholds of the Host Macrophage
Parul Mehrotra equal contributor,Shilpa V. Jamwal equal contributor,Najmuddin Saquib,Neeraj Sinha,Zaved Siddiqui,Venkatasamy Manivel,Samrat Chatterjee,Kanury V. S. Rao
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004265
Abstract: The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen derives from its facile adaptation to the intracellular milieu of human macrophages. To explore this process, we asked whether adaptation also required interference with the metabolic machinery of the host cell. Temporal profiling of the metabolic flux, in cells infected with differently virulent mycobacterial strains, confirmed that this was indeed the case. Subsequent analysis identified the core subset of host reactions that were targeted. It also elucidated that the goal of regulation was to integrate pathways facilitating macrophage survival, with those promoting mycobacterial sustenance. Intriguingly, this synthesis then provided an axis where both host- and pathogen-derived factors converged to define determinants of pathogenicity. Consequently, whereas the requirement for macrophage survival sensitized TB susceptibility to the glycemic status of the individual, mediation by pathogen ensured that the virulence properties of the infecting strain also contributed towards the resulting pathology.
The Effects of Anxiety on Cognitive Processing in English Language Learning
Zaved Ahmed Khan
English Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v3n2p199
Abstract: Language anxiety is a prevalent phenomenon in second language learning. This experiment examines the arousal of anxiety caused by the introduction of a video camera at various points in a vocabulary learning task. Two hundred sixteen students of 1st-year university English language course were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) one group who had anxiety aroused during their initial exposure to the stimuli, (b) a second group who had anxiety aroused when they began to learn the meanings of the words, (c) a third group who had anxiety aroused when they were asked to produce the English word (when prompted with the Hindi), and (d) a control group who did not experience anxiety arousal. Significant increases in state anxiety were reported in all three groups when the video camera was introduced, and concomitant deficits in vocabulary acquisition were observed. It is concluded that the stage at which anxiety arises has implications for any remedial action taken to reduce the effects of language anxiety.
Numerical Investigation of Phase and Group Propagation of Time-Domain Signals in a Novel Band-Reject Metamaterial Ring Hybrid  [PDF]
Omar Siddiqui
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.36002
Abstract: Phase and group propagation in metamaterial-based microwave components has always been intellectually challenging for students and engineers new to the area of periodic structures and metamaterials. This paper aims in tackling this important topic by studying the wave propagation in a metamaterial-based microwave device. Hence, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, design of a novel metamaterial ring hybrid (or rate-race) is presented which has a large rejection band so that the second and third harmonics are effectively suppressed. Second, the electromagnetic phase and the group propagation in the ring hybrid are investigated by numerically exciting the input ports with band-limited Gaussian pulses and then finding their responses at various locations in the device.
The Images of White Womanhood in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Shahila Zafar,Zaved Ahmed Khan
Studies in Literature and Language , 2010,
Abstract: Black women’s literature especially, slave narratives, are generally considered as a resistance against the white male hegemony. But, if we go deep into it we notice, woven in the intricate weave of the narrative, the stories of the white women as well. Complex relationships between black and white women and between white men and white women are depicted in these records of American history. The present paper is an analysis the relationship of the white women to their circumstances as depicted in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs. Incidents is a compelling true story about the physical and psychological oppression of the black slave women in the south but it is also a story that breaks many a myth about the southern white women as well.
Challenges and Usage of Link Mining to Semantic Web
Zaved Akhtar,Mahesh Kr. Singh,Naushad Begam
International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: - It is an emerging challenge for data mining is the problem of mining richly structures datasets, where the objects are linked in some way. Links among the objects may demonstrate certain patterns, which can be helpful for many data mining tasks and are usually hard to capture with traditional statistical models. Many datasets of interest today are best described as a linked collection of interrelated objects. These may represent homogeneous networks, in which there is a single-object type and link type (eg. people connected by friendship links, or the WWW, a collection of linked web pages) or richer, heterogeneous networks, in which there may be multiple object and link types (and possibly other semantic information). Examples of heterogeneous networks include those in medical domains describing patients, diseases, treatments and contacts, or in bibliographic domains describing publications, authors, and venues. Link mining refers to data mining techniques that explicitly consider these links when building predictive or descriptive models of the linked data. Commonly addressed link mining tasks include object ranking, group detection, collective classification, link prediction and subgraph discovery. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding area. In this article we review some of the common emerging themes and discuss ongoing link mining challenges; open issues and suggest ideas that could be opportunities for solutions. The most conclusion of this article is that providing an idea to usage link mining techniques from link mining to help to construct the Semantic Web.
Possible modulation of neurobehavioural patterns by anxiolytics drugs
Zaved Ahmed Khan,,Dr Asit Ranjan Ghosh
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: Stress is very common and affects as many as one in eight every people in their teen years. Depression, which is common form of stress related disorder affects people of every color, race, economic status, or age. However, it does seem to affect more females than males during adolescence and adulthood. Stress affects mind, body, and behavior in many ways. The signs and symptoms of stress vary from person to person, but all have the potential to harm our health, emotional wellbeing, and relationships with others. The stress response of the body is meant to protect and support us in maintaining stability. Our body is constantly adjusting to its surroundings. When a physical or mental event threatens this equilibrium, we react to it. Anxiety is characterized by a persistent and disproportionate fear unrelated to any genuine risk. It canincrease to an extent that may interfere with even normal routine of life and person may feel apprehensive regarding happenings of normal things in life. The present paper discusses anti-anxiety potential of 15 anxiolytics with emphasis on their pre-clinical and clinical reports.majority of drugs have been found to be acting through modulation of serotonin and gamma butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitters.
Development of a Risk Model for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence  [PDF]
Mujahid Ahmad Mir, Farzana Manzoor, Balvinder Singh, Imtiyaz Ahmad Sofi, Abu Zaved Rameez, Sheikh Imran Farooq
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.710063
Abstract: Objectives: To identify independent risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence and develop a risk model to recognize high risk patients. Methods: The samples studied were patients who underwent midline laparotomy in the department of surgery, SMHS Hospital Srinagar from March 2009 to April 2015. For each case of abdominal wound dehiscence, three controls were selected from a group of patients who had undergone open abdominal surgery as close as possible in time. Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative variables and in-hospital mortality were studied for all patients. Cases were compared with controls using the chi-square test or the Mann-Whitney U-test for categorical or continuous data, respectively. Subsequently, multivariate stepwise logistic regression with backwards elimination test used to identify main independent risk factors of abdominal wound dehiscence. The resulting regression coefficients for the major risk factors were used as weights for these variables to calculate a risk score for abdominal wound dehiscence. Results: 140 cases of abdominal wound dehiscence were reported and compared with 420 selected controls. All variables that were significant in univariate analyses were entered in a multivariate stepwise logistic regression to determine which variables were significant independent risk factors. Major independent risk factors were male gender, chronic pulmonary disease, corticosteroid use, smoking, obesity, anemia, jaundice, ascites, and sepsis, type of surgery, postoperative coughing, and wound infection. Based on these findings, a risk model was developed. Conclusions: The model can give an estimate of the risk of abdominal wound dehiscence for individual patients. High-risk patients may be planned preventive wound closing with reinforcements as mesh.
Experimental Study of Surface and Solution Properties of Gemini -conventional Surfactant Mixtures on Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon  [PDF]
M. Kamil, Huma Siddiqui
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2013.34B004

Experimental data are presented on the enhanced solubilities of fluorene (FLR) resulting from solubilization in aqueous solutions of two conventional surfactants: cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) , anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), nonioinic polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (Brij35) and a cationic gemini bis (hexadecyldimethylammonium) pentane dibromide (G5). The critical micellar concentration of surfactants was determined by surface tension measurements and aqueous solubilities of fluorene compound in surfactant solutions were measured spectrophotometrically. Solubilization of PAH compound commenced at the surfactant critical micelle concentration and was proportional to the concentration of surfactant in micelle. The results of the mixed systems were analyzed with the help of regular solution theory, in which the deviation of CMCexp values for mixed surfactant systems from CMCideal was measured by evaluating the interaction parameter, βm. Negative values of βm were observed in all equimolar binary systems which show synergism in the mixed micelle. Attraction force between two oppositely charged head groups lead the strongest synergism effect between cationic gemini and anionic conventional surfactant. In addition to molar solubilization ratio (MSR) solubilization efficiency is also quantified in terms of micelle-water partition coefficient (Km).

Acidulation and Regeneration of Bamboo Derived Sorbents for Gas Phase Adsorption of Elemental Mercury  [PDF]
Naved Siddiqui, Jarlen Don
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.102008
Abstract: This paper presents results that illustrate the recycling of a bamboo derived sorbent used for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg0). The bamboo derived sorbent used is essentially a HCl functionalized activated carbon prepared from carbonization and CO2 activation of raw bamboo, that could potentially provide an alternative way to existing methods in removing mercury from flue gases from coal-fired plants. In this study, the bamboo derived sorbents were tested in a batch test using a mercury permeation tube as the source and nitrogen as a carrier gas. The recycling or regeneration of an activated carbon is an important issue to address from a coal-fired power plant point of view, and an attempt has been made to test the behavior of bamboo derived sorbents with various treatments including carbonized, carbonized-activated, carbonized-activated-acidulated, and then a follow-up recycled run after sample treatments in gas phase. From the study, it was found that bamboo derived activated carbon can be successfully acidulated using various normalities of HCl where weak solutions can be very effective in functionalizing the surface of the sorbent and capturing mercury. In order to recycle and reuse bamboo derived sorbents, stronger normalities of HCl would be desired.
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