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Actualizar el patrón de crecimiento de referencia nacional: una realidad necesaria?
Nolis Camacho-Camargo,Zarela Molina-Viana
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo , 2010,
Abstract:
INSATISFACCIóN POR LA IMAGEN CORPORAL Y LA BAJA AUTOESTIMA POR LA APARIENCIA FíSICA EN ESTUDIANTES DE LA FACULTAD DE MEDICINA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES DEL ESTADO MERIDA VENEZUELA
Pedro López Atencio,José R. Prado P.,Mercedes Montilla,Zarela Molina Viana
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2008,
Abstract: La presente investigación tuvo como propósito central evaluar la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y su relación con la baja autoestima por la apariencia física en estudiantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Los Andes en Mérida Venezuela. El estudio fue de tipo no experimental correlacional. La muestra estuvo constituida por 189 estudiantes, 27% masculino y 73% femenino, con una edad promedio de 19,58 a os ± 1,57 (varones 19,81 a os ± 1,74 y para las mujeres 20,24 a os ± 1,76). Los participantes fueron seleccionados de los cursos del primer a o de las carreras de: medicina, enfermería y nutrición, los cuales fueron seleccionados de forma intencional. El instrumento empleado para determinar la Insatisfacción por la Imagen Corporal fue el Body Shape Questionnaire (Cooper y Taylor, 1987). El método de Graffar Modificado fue utilizado para determinar el estrato socioeconómico de los participantes (Méndez y De Méndez, 1994). A los datos se les aplicó el análisis descriptivo (frecuencia, porcentajes, media) e inferencial (ANOVA de un solo factor a través del paquete estadístico SPSS versión 9.0). Entre los principales hallazgos en el estudio se pudo determinar una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la baja autoestima por la apariencia física con el género χ2 (2, N= 189) = 9,686, p=0,008. A través de ANOVA se pudo determinar que las diferencias en las medias para los niveles de insatisfacción y baja autoestima con la imagen corporal y el género son estadísticamente significativas, F=11,236; p=0,008, F=10,23; p=0,002 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos permiten sugerir sobre la relación que existe entre la insatisfacción y la baja autoestima por la apariencia física, existiendo un rechazo por la propia imagen corporal causada por la percepción distorsionada o no de la misma, lo que podría afectar la autoestima por la apariencia física. Además, se observa que la salud psicológica de los estudiantes se relaciona más con su satisfacción por su apariencia física que como se percibe su imagen corporal. Por lo tanto, este grupo de participantes debe analizarse en relación con su autoestima por la apariencia física, como una expresión del ambiente institucional. También es importante enfatizar que el género puede ser un factor de riesgo en los desórdenes de hábitos alimenticios. Consideramos lo anterior porque las mujeres mostraron niveles de insatisfacción más altos, ya que su apariencia física se encuentra condicionada por una mayor insatisfacción con su imagen corporal ta
Influencia del género y la percepción de la imagen corporal en las conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes de Mérida
López Atencio,Pedro; Molina,Zarela; Rojas,Lizbeth;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: the object of this study was to analyze the influence of gender and body image perception in risk eating conducts associated with the upheavals of eating disorders in adolescents of first and second year of highschool in eight public institutions of the municipio libertador in merida venezuela, they were selected in an intentional form. a descriptive field, was performed, in which 421 adolescents participated, 56, 5% men and 43,5% females, the average of age for the 15,75 men was ± 1,05 years and for 15,80 females ±1.07 years. for the gathering of the corporal image data, an instrument was designed and validated, in this the participant chose between four alternatives the option that represented more his/her condition at the moment, 57.5%, perceived themselves as normal, 30.6%, as thin; and 11.9% with overweight. the perception of obese corporal image was not reported. the normal and thin body image were perceived among the adolescents with a higher frequency in men 32.5%, whereas the perception of the image with overweight was more frequent in the females (7.4%). the registry of eating disorders was done through a questionnaire designed and validated by a group of experts constituted by dietitians, sociologists and clinical psychologists in which the interviewed was asked in person to report the eating conduct practiced for the control of weight during the previous six months. the findings allow us to confirm that women whose perception of their image is characterized by the excess present major risks associated with the upheavals of the eating disorders (9,586 f=2 p=0,008 (12,622 f=5 p=0,027).
Relación entre el índice de masa corporal y las cifras de tensión arterial en adolescentes
Nolis Camacho-Camargo,Jorge Alvarado,Mariela Paoli,Zarela Molina
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo , 2009,
Abstract: Objetivos: Investigar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las cifras de tensión arterial en adolescentes de la ciudad de Mérida, dada su asociación con el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles en el adulto. Métodos: Se estudiaron 385 adolescentes, 62,3% de sexo femenino y 37,7% de masculino, entre 12 y 15 a os de edad, con promedio de 15,17±1,71 a os. Se les tomaron las medidas antropométricas, para el cálculo del IMC, y la tensión arterial (TA) en posición sentada. Se consideraron normales el IMC y la TA comprendida entre los percentiles 10 y 90 para las curvas venezolanas, de acuerdo a edad y sexo; se consideró sobrepeso y obesidad sobre el pc 90 y Pre-hipertensión (Pre-HTA) e hipertensión arterial (HTA) sobre el pc 90. Resultados: El 75,3% de los adolescentes presentaron un IMC normal, el 11,2% un IMC bajo y el 13,6% sobrepeso y obesidad. El 1,1% presentò TA sistólica sobre el pc 90 y el 6,3% presentó TA diastólica sobre la norma. No se observó asociación del IMC y de la TA con el sexo ni el estrato socio-económico. Se encontró una alta y significativa asociación entre el sobrepeso/obesidad y la Pre-HTA/HTA (p=0,0001). El riesgo de un adolescente con IMC sobre el pc 90 de presentar Pre-HTA o HTA fue 9,76 veces mayor (Odss ratio) que el adolescente con IMC menor al pc 90 (IC 95%: 4,09-23,27; p=0,0001). Conclusión: Se comprobó una asociación estadística entre el IMC y los valores de TA sistólica y diastólica, por lo que adolescentes que tengan IMC altos deben ser seguidos y sometidos a algún tipo de intervención tendiente a disminuir la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en la edad adulta. Objective: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the blood pressure (BP) values in adolescents of the city of Mérida, given its association with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in adults. Methods: We studied 385 adolescents, 62.3% female and 37.7% male, between 12 and 15 years of age, with average of 15.17 ± 1.71 years. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) were taken. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI and BP between 10th and 90th percentile from Venezuelan curves, according to age and sex, were considered normal. Obesity/overweight and pre-hypertension/hypertension (Pre-HTA/HTA) were considered when the BMI and the BP were located above the 90th percentile. Results: A total of 75.3% of the adolescents had a normal BMI, 11.2% a low BMI and 13.6% had overweight and obesity. The systolic BP was above the 90th percentile in 1.1% and the diastolic BP i
Relación entre el índice de masa corporal y las cifras de tensión arterial en adolescentes
Camacho-Camargo,Nolis; Alvarado,Jorge; Paoli,Mariela; Molina,Zarela; Cicchetti,Rosanna; Santiago,Justo; Huber,Ana; Molina,Yudisay;
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo , 2009,
Abstract: objective: to investigate the relationship between body mass index (bmi) and the blood pressure (bp) values in adolescents of the city of mérida, given its association with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in adults. methods: we studied 385 adolescents, 62.3% female and 37.7% male, between 12 and 15 years of age, with average of 15.17 ± 1.71 years. anthropometric measures and blood pressure (bp) were taken. the body mass index (bmi) was calculated. bmi and bp between 10th and 90th percentile from venezuelan curves, according to age and sex, were considered normal. obesity/overweight and pre-hypertension/hypertension (pre-hta/hta) were considered when the bmi and the bp were located above the 90th percentile. results: a total of 75.3% of the adolescents had a normal bmi, 11.2% a low bmi and 13.6% had overweight and obesity. the systolic bp was above the 90th percentile in 1.1% and the diastolic bp in 6.3% of the adolescents. no association was observed between bmi and bp with the sex and socio-economic stratum. it was found a high and significant association between overweight/obesity and pre-hta/hta (p=0.0001). the risk for pre-hta/hta of an adolescent with a bmi over 90th percentile was 9.76 times higher (odss ratio) than in adolescents with a bmi less than 90th percentile (95% ci 4.09-23.27; p = 0.0001). conclusion: it was found a statistical association between bmi and the values of systolic and diastolic bp. those adolescents with high bmi should be monitored and subject to any intervention aimed at reducing the incidence of non-transmissible chronic diseases in adulthood.
Steatosis Hepática en Ni?os y Adolecentes obesos: Asociación con adiposidad, lípidos, insulina y enzimas hepática
Camacho,Nolis; Guillén,Mayela; Gil,Giobely 1; Paoli,Mariela; Molina,Zarela; Cicchetti,Rosanna; Molina,Yudisay; Parra,Isabel;
Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo , 2010,
Abstract: objectives: to study the frequency of hepatic steatosis (hs) in a group of obese children and adolescents and its association with anthropometric measurements, blood lipid levels, insulin resistance and aminotransferase. methods: twenty-two obese children (bmi> pc97) between 6 and 13 years old, (9.28 ± 1.9 years), 59% male and 41% female were included. blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, including waist, were taken, and body mass index (bmi), fat and muscle area were calcaulated. determinations of blood glucose and insulin in fasting and post-prandial, lipids and aminotransferases were made. with these data insulin resistance index, homa-ir was calculated. a liver ultrasound with transducers between 3 and 5 mhz was performed to study the presence of hs, according to the echogenicity, sound attenuation and visualization of vessels and diaphragm.results: forty-five percent (45%) of participants presented hs, 6 female and 4 male, a difference that did not become significant. in 14% the hs was mild, 27% moderate and 4% severe. significant association was ob-served between the presence of hs and the elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ast, p = 0.029) and alanine aminotransferase (alt, p = 0.003). there was not a significant association with insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. those children with hs showed significantly higher values of bmi (p <0.005), waist (p <0.005), fat area (p <0.05), postprandial insulin (p <0.05), ast (p < 0.0001), alt (p <0.0001) and alkaline phosphatase (p <0.0001) than those without hs. the logistic regression analysis, with the presence of hs as the dependent variable, showed that bmi was the most significant explanatory anthropometric variable (p=0.018, ci 95%: 1,12-3,52), and ast the most significant explanatory biochemistry variable (p = 0.032, ci 95%, 1,02-1,63).conclusion: hepatic steatosis is a common complication of obesity in children and adolescents, and it is associated with indicators of adiposity, main
Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children
Henry Marcano, Maricelia Fernández, Mariela Paoli, Mercedes Santomauro, Nolis Camacho, Rosanna Cichetti, Zarela Molina, Lenin Valeri, Roberto Lanes
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/241703
Abstract: The United States population has experienced a twofold to fourfold increase in the prevalence of obesity in the last two decades [1, 2], with a higher incidence among young African-Americans and Latinos [3]. Data obtained in a major city in the Venezuelan Andes seem to indicate a similar trend [4, 5]. Childhood obesity may lead to diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and premature death in adulthood [6]. Similarly, diseases such as dyslipidemias and type 2 diabetes are now being more frequently detected in both children and adolescents. Obese children have exhibited insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and increased concentrations of serum lipids. Higher body weight has been accompanied by an accumulation of visceral fat as well as elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) with hepatic steatosis [7–13]. Obese children have also been found to be in a proinflammatory state, characterized by increased ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, changes in endothelial function, and alterations in arterial structure [14, 15].The effect of modest nonpharmacological lifestyle-only intervention on auxological and metabolic parameters in obese children has not been conclusively determined, but several recent studies have demonstrated an improvement in body composition, a decrease in hemostatic and inflammatory markers, and an improvement in markers of insulin sensitivity following intervention [16–19]. It is not yet clear whether weight loss is required for these parameters to improve and to be sustained in time. In this study, we hypothesized that lifestyle-only intervention in obese children could lead to an improvement of both anthropometric and metabolic markers, even if weight loss was discrete or if weight remained stable.One hundred and eleven overweight or obese children (63 females and 48 males), with a mean chronological age of 11.3 ± 2.8 years, participated in the study. Fifty-three of the pati
Niveles séricos de leptina y cinc en pacientes oligomenorreicas
Parra,Mariolla; Marín de López,Gladys; Uzcategui,Carmen Luisa; Hernández Yá?ez,Leonor; Molina,Zarela;
Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela , 2002,
Abstract: summary objective: to investigate in eumenorrheics and oligomenorrheics women if exist differences in the serous levels of leptin and zinc. method: transversal study in 40 women: 20 eumenorrheics and 20 oligomenorrheics with normal weight or overweight, according with their body mass index. setting: gynecology unit, autonomy institute hospital universitario de los andes, laboratory of hormonal investigations, department of physiopathology, faculty of medicine, and laboratory of instrumental analysis, faculty of pharmacy, university de los andes, merida, venezuela. results: the women with overweight showed greater serum levels of leptin. the serum concentrations of zinc and relation leptin/fat area were more high in the oligomenorrheics with overweight. the overweight women the relation leptin/zinc reached the highest figures. conclusion: in the oligomenorrheic patients the production of leptin by fat area is higher and this could be, in part, to be favored to have higher serum concentration of zinc.
Desidrata??o osmótica de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi em xarope de a?úcar invertido
Dionello, Rafael G.;Berbert, Pedro A.;Molina, Marília A. B.;Pereira, Rozimar C.;Viana, Alexandre P.;Carlesso, Vinicius O.;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662009000500013
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of the osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars, pérola and smooth cayenne, in undiluted inverted sugar syrup. osmotic dehydration was carried out using a fruit to syrup weight ratio of 1:10, and employing two levels of temperature of the solutions (40 and 50 oc), two levels of agitation (zero and 60 min-1) for a total immersion time of 2 h. results showed that the fruit to syrup ratio employed did not alter the total soluble solids content of the osmotic solution at the end of the dehydration process. a threefold increase in the total soluble solids content in pineapple slices was observed after dehydration, irrespective of cultivar and temperature of the solution. highest values of mass reduction, water loss and solids gain were observed for fruit slices of cultivar pérola.
Meyer and schilz function to estimate common bean seed water content evaluated by radiofrequency
Berbert, Pedro Amorim;Molina, Marília Berbert;Viana, Alexandre Pio;Carlesso, Vinícius de Oliveira;Oliveira, Marcia Terezinha Ramos de;
Scientia Agricola , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162007000600002
Abstract: derivation of density-independent dielectric functions for moisture determination in grains is important for the implementation of on-line sensors in automated driers. the object of this study was to investigate the meyer and schilz function [(e'1)/e"] for indirect and non-destructive water content measurement of seeds of common bean by radiofrequency, where e' and e" are the relative permittivity and the dielectric loss factor, respectively. samples consisted of common bean seeds variety campe?o-3 at moisture contents ranging from 11.5 to 20.6% w.b., and bulk densities from 756 to 854 kg m-3, performing dielectric measurements in a room at 20 ± 1oc and 66 ± 2% relative humidity. the model could estimate common bean seed moisture content with a standard error of the estimate, and maximum error of 0.5 and 1.0 percentage point in moisture, w.b., respectively.
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