Abstract:
Ancestors of the modern chicken were domesticated from members of the Gallus genus probably 7 to 8 thousand years ago in southeastern Asia. Subsequently, they spread globally for meat and egg production. In the chicken egg, there is a balance of numerous, high-quality nutrients, many of which are highly bioavailable. The egg confers a multitude of health benefits to consumers emphasizing its classification as a functional food. Current global per capita egg consumption estimates approach 9 kg annually but vary greatly on a regional basis. This review deals with global production, consumption, and management aspects such as hygiene, feeding, and housing. Management aspects play key roles in the composition, quality, food safety, and visual (consumer) appeal of the egg. Also the manipulation of egg nutrients and value for human health is discussed.

Abstract:
In this paper we prove that as N goes to infinity, the scaling limit of the correlation between critical points z1 and z2 of random holomorphic sections of the N-th power of a positive line bundle over a compact Riemann surface tends to 2/(3pi^2) for small sqrt(N)|z1-z2|. The scaling limit is directly calculated using a general form of the Kac-Rice formula and formulas and theorems of Pavel Bleher, Bernard Shiffman, and Steve Zelditch.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe a number of extensions to Razborov's semidefinite flag algebra method. We will begin by showing how to apply the method to significantly improve the upper bounds of edge and vertex Tur\'an density type results for hypercubes. We will then introduce an improvement to the method which can be applied in a more general setting, notably to 3-uniform hypergraphs, to get a new upper bound of 0.5615 for $\pi(K_4^3)$. For hypercubes we improve Thomason and Wagner's result on the upper bound of the edge Tur\'an density of a 4-cycle free subcube to 0.60318 and Chung's result on forbidding 6-cycles to 0.36577. We also show that the upper bound of the vertex Tur\'an density of $\mc{Q}_3$ can be improved to 0.76900, and that the vertex Tur\'an density of $\mc{Q}_3$ with one vertex removed is precisely 2/3.

Abstract:
Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. In this study, we present all the ALCAPA patients which were admitted at our institution during April 2007-December 2010. Retrospective review of these patients regarding their clinical presentation and the use of diagnostic modalities will be presented in this series. There were total of five patients, three male and 2 female, with age range of 2 - 12 months. The most common symptoms at presentation were tachypnea (4/5) and poor feeding with irritability (3/5). Electrocardiogram was abnormal in 2/5 cases and chest X ray revealed cardiome-galy with pulmonary congestion in 4/5 patients. Echocardiogram showed mitral valve regurgitation in 5/5 cases (3 with moderate and 2 with mild to moderate), Left ventricular dilatation/dysfunction in 4/5 patients, echogenic left ventricular papillary muscles in 4/5 patients and prominent right coronary with strong suspecision of ALCAPA in 4/5 patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 4/5 cases to confirm the diagnosis. We conclude that by thorough clinical assessment along with ECG and CXR, the diagnosis of ALCAPA can be strongly suspected. Echocardiogram can almost always make the diagnosis of ALCAPA and coronary angiography can confirm the diagnosis in rare atypical cases.

Objectives: Different devices including Amplatzer
duct occluder has been used for percutaneous closure of ventricular septal
defects. This study reports our medium term follow up of perimembranous and
muscular ventricular septal defects with tunnel shape aneurysm closure using the
Amplatzer duct occluder. Materials and Methods: From May 2006-December 2012, we
used Amplatzer duct occluder in seven ventricular septal defect patients here
atHamad General Hospital,Doha,Qatar. There were 4 male and 3 female
patients with an age range of 4 - 32 years with a median of 8 years and weight
range of 16 - 63 kgwith a
median of33 kg. In
this group, 6 were perimembranous and 1 muscular and all these ventricular
septal defects had a tunnel shape aneurysm. Transesophageal echocardiographic diameter ranged from 4 - 8 mmand Qp/Qs was 1 - 1.6. Angiographically,
the diameter on the left ventricular side measured 3.5 - 10 mmand on right ventricular side 2.4 - 5 mm. 8/6
mmAmplatzer duct occluder was used to close these ventricular
septal defects. Results: There were no major complications and immediately
after the procedure there was no residual shunt in any of these patients and
all the patients remained in normal sinus rhythm. One patient was expatriate
and no further follow up was available. The rest of the 6 patients had 1 - 80
months with a median of 54 months follow up and none of these patients had any
residual shunt and all remained in normal sinus rhythm. Two patients developed
trivial aortic valve regurgitation immediate post procedure, one remained
unchanged and the 2^{nd} has progressed to mild at this latest follow
up. Conclusion: Amplatzer duct occluder is feasible and a safe device for
percutaneous closure of selective tunnel shape aneurysmal perimembranous and
muscular ventricular septal defects.

Abstract:
We say that $\alpha\in [0,1)$ is a jump for an integer $r\geq 2$ if there exists $c(\alpha)>0$ such that for all $\epsilon >0 $ and all $t\geq 1$ any $r$-graph with $n\geq n_0(\alpha,\epsilon,t)$ vertices and density at least $\alpha+\epsilon$ contains a subgraph on $t$ vertices of density at least $\alpha+c$. The Erd\H os--Stone--Simonovits theorem implies that for $r=2$ every $\alpha\in [0,1)$ is a jump. Erd\H os showed that for all $r\geq 3$, every $\alpha\in [0,r!/r^r)$ is a jump. Moreover he made his famous "jumping constant conjecture" that for all $r\geq 3$, every $\alpha \in [0,1)$ is a jump. Frankl and R\"odl disproved this conjecture by giving a sequence of values of non-jumps for all $r\geq 3$. We use Razborov's flag algebra method to show that jumps exist for $r=3$ in the interval $[2/9,1)$. These are the first examples of jumps for any $r\geq 3$ in the interval $[r!/r^r,1)$. To be precise we show that for $r=3$ every $\alpha \in [0.2299,0.2316)$ is a jump. We also give an improved upper bound for the Tur\'an density of $K_4^-=\{123,124,134\}$: $\pi(K_4^-)\leq 0.2871$. This in turn implies that for $r=3$ every $\alpha \in [0.2871,8/27)$ is a jump.

Abstract:
If $\mathcal{F}$ is a family of graphs then the Tur\'an density of $\mathcal{F}$ is determined by the minimum chromatic number of the members of $\mathcal{F}$. The situation for Tur\'an densities of 3-graphs is far more complex and still very unclear. Our aim in this paper is to present new exact Tur\'an densities for individual and finite families of 3-graphs, in many cases we are also able to give corresponding stability results. As well as providing new examples of individual 3-graphs with Tur\'an densities equal to 2/9,4/9,5/9 and 3/4 we also give examples of irrational Tur\'an densities for finite families of 3-graphs, disproving a conjecture of Chung and Graham. (Pikhurko has independently disproved this conjecture by a very different method.) A central question in this area, known as Tur\'an's problem, is to determine the Tur\'an density of $K_4^{(3)}=\{123,124, 134, 234\}$. Tur\'an conjectured that this should be 5/9. Razborov [On 3-hypergraphs with forbidden 4-vertex configurations, in SIAM J. Disc. Math. 24 (2010), 946-963] showed that if we consider the induced Tur\'an problem forbidding $K_4^{(3)}$ and $E_1$, the 3-graph with 4 vertices and a single edge, then the Tur\'an density is indeed 5/9. We give some new non-induced results of a similar nature, in particular we show that $\pi(K_4^{(3)},H)=5/9$ for a 3-graph $H$ satisfying $\pi(H)=3/4$. We end with a number of open questions focusing mainly on the topic of which values can occur as Tur\'an densities. Our work is mainly computational, making use of Razborov's flag algebra framework. However all proofs are exact in the sense that they can be verified without the use of any floating point operations. Indeed all verifying computations use only integer operations, working either over $\mathbb{Q}$ or in the case of irrational Tur\'an densities over an appropriate quadratic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$.