This paper investigates the effect of the Van-Ercis, Turkey, (Mw: 7.2)earthquake occurring on 23rd of October, 2011 on the transportation networks in the region. The basic incentivefor this research is to conceptualise the reliability and performance of the networks after the earthquake through the operational and topological analysis of the system. The demand and composition of the traffic along with the behaviour of the pedestrians were taken into account to evaluate the performance of the networks. In addition, the general structure of the cities and towns, as far as planning is concerned, is also paid attention and regarded as one of the main elements for the appraisal. The outcomes obtained are thought very important to be guidance for the expected Istanbul earthquake in the near future.
Automated Routing Control System supersedes
the prior approach to LAN redundancy which provides two or more LANs and each
has a network (LAN) controller coupled to data communication devices. Devices
require some software to switch between the network (LAN) controllers to
counter some network segment failures. This approach is proven to be very costly due to
demands for “off-the-shelf” data communication devices with built-in LAN controller drivers . Automated Routing Control System, is
the ultimate solution to the growing demands for inexpensive (less costly) and
less difficult approach which requires less modification rather than upgrade of network devices yet it minimizes data and information exchange losses and interruptions caused by connection
failures within the network and lessens the task of managing a complex network
having many segments rather than subnets under a centralized monitoring and management. Automated Routing Control System rather than mechanism is a
realistic approach applied to meet the ever
growing demands for reliability, high efficiency and availability within data
and information exchange networks.
At the end of 17th century and during 18th century,
after devastating Russian wars the Ottomans realized that they fell behind of
the war technology of the Western militaries. In order to catch up with their
Western rivals, they decided that they had to reform their education systems.
For that they sent several students to abroad for education and started to
translate Western books.？ They
established Western style military academies of engineering. They also invited
foreign teachers in order to give education in these institutes and they
consulted them while there were preparing the curriculum. For all these, during the modernization period, the reform (nizama-1 cedid) planers modelled mainly France,
especially for teaching the applied disciplines. Since their main aim
was to grasp the technology of the West, their interest focused on the applied
part of sciences and mathematics. For that reason, they had a very keen
interest on mathematical instruments. The main objective in this article is to
examine mathematical instruments commonly used in the Ottoman empire. We
examined that by dividing the subject in two periods: The Classical period (Medieval
Islamic Echole) and the Modernization period (Western Echole). Our main focus
in this article will be the Modernization period and the instruments used in
the Ottoman military academies.