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Vegetation pattern of Istanbul from the Landsat data and the relationship with meteorological parameters
Zafer Aslan,Krishnaier Natarajan,Mehmet Tankut
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: This paper discusses the preliminary results of a study on the vegetation pattern and its relationship with meteorological parameters in and around Istanbul. The study covers an area of over 6800 km2 consisting of urban and suburban centers, and uses the visible and near-infrared bands of Landsat. The spatial variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and meteorological parameters such as sensible heat flux, momentum flux, relative humidity, moist static energy, rainfall rate and temperature have been investigated based on observations in ten stations in the European (Thracian) and Anatolian parts of Istanbul. NDVI values have been evaluated from the Landsat data for a single day, viz. 24 October 1986, using ERDAS in ten different classes. The simultaneous spatial variations of sensible heat and momentum fluxes have been computed from the wind and temperature profiles using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The static energy variations are based on the surface meteorological observations. There is very good correlation between NDVI and rainfall rate. Good correlation also exists between: NDVI and relative humidity; NDVI, sensible heat flux and relative humidity; NDVI, momentum flux and emissivity; and NDVI, sensible heat flux and emissivity. The study suggests that the momentum flux has only marginal impact on NDVI. Due to rapid urbanization,the coastal belt is characterized by reduced NDVI compared to the interior areas, suggesting that thermodynamic discontinuities considerably influence the vegetation pattern. This study is useful for the investigation of small-scale circulation models, especially in urban and suburban areas where differential heating leads to the formation of heat islands. In the long run, such studies on a global scale are vital to gain accurate, timely information on the distribution of vegetation on the earth's surface. This may lead to an understanding of how changes in land cover affect phenomena as diverse as the atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the hydrological cycle and the energy balance at the surface-atmosphere interface.
Variations of Air Temperature and Precipitation in Asian and European Parts of Istanbul
Zafer Aslan, Fadime Giden, Hatice Koyuncu, Ayten Kalafat
Dogal Afetler ve Cevre Dergisi , 2016, DOI: 10.21324/dacd.75393
Abstract: Frequency of showers and floods show an increasing trend in recent year in the world. Role of climate changing on frequency of natural hazardous depends on topographic structure, vegetation cover, land use- land surface classification and urbanization. This paper covers analyses of spatial and temporal variations of air temperature and precipitation at four selected stations (Bah?ek?y, Florya, G?ztepe and ?ile) in European and Asian parts of Istanbul. Mean air temperature variations show an increasing trend between 3% and 5% at G?ztepe and Florya. The extreme increasing ratio of monthly maximum air temperature values (6%) is observed at ?ile. Increasing trends of monthly total rainfall rates at Bah?ek?y and ?ile are 10% and 17% respectively. Role of urbanizations on temporal and spatial variations of daily, monthly averages and extremes of variables have been statistically evaluated in this paper.
Developmental expression of p97/VCP (Valosin-containing protein) and Jab1/CSN5 in the rat testis and epididymis
Sevil Cayli, Seda Ocakli, Fikret Erdemir, Ufuk Tas, Huseyin Aslan, Tamer Yener, Zafer Karaca
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-117
Abstract: Testicular and epididymal tissues from 5-, 15-, 30-, and 60-day-old rats were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Colocalisation of proteins was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy.In the 5-day-old rat testis, p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 were specifically expressed in gonocytes. The expression of p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 significantly increased at day 15 and was found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and spermatocytes. In 30- and 60-day-old rat testes, p97/VCP indicated moderate to strong expression in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, round and elongating spermatids. However, moderate to weak expression was observed in spermatocytes. Jab1/CSN5 showed strong expression in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, while relatively moderate expression was observed in round and elongating spermatids in 30- and 60-day-old rat testes. In contrast, in the epididymis, the expression of both proteins gradually increased from 5 to 60 days of age. After rats reached 2 weeks of age, the expression of both proteins was mostly restricted to the basal and principal cells of the caput epididymis.Our study suggests that p97/VCP and Jab1/CSN5 could be an important part of the UPS in the developing rat testis and epididymis and that both proteins may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and epididymal epithelial functions.The testis has the specific function of generating spermatozoa from precursors called spermatogonia after an intricate series of divisions [1]. This process takes place within the seminiferous epithelium, which is a complex structure composed of germ cells with radially oriented supporting cells termed Sertoli cells. In postnatal animals, spermatogenesis is initiated in the testes when gonocytes resume proliferation, migrate to the seminiferous tubule basal membrane and differentiate into spermatogonial stem cells [2]. The postnatal phase is divided into three main stages: 1) mitotic proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and premeiotic different
Modified Technique for Internal Ureteroileal Stenting in Orthotopic Neobladders  [PDF]
Guven Aslan
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2011.12005
Abstract: We introduce a modified surgical technique for internal ureteroileal stenting to improve cosmesis in patients undergoing ileal neobladder. Internal ureteric stents are secured to the tip of the urethral catheter with nonabsorbable suture facilitating removal of the stents postoperatively 2-3 weeks along with the urethral catheter. This surgical modification was applied to 21 patients of whom no significant surgical or infectious complication due to single urethral catheter was observed. Internal ureteral stenting is simple, safe and inexpensive alternative to conventional methods to support ureteroileal anastomosis in patients undergoing orthotopic bladder substitution.
Comment on the Paper “Condom-Assisted Transurethral Resection: A New Surgical Technique for Urethral Tumor”, Surgical Science, Vol. 1, 2010, pp. 46-48  [PDF]
Guven Aslan
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.24042
Abstract: The authors introduce a new technical modification which facilitates endoscopic resection of urethra tumors located at navicular fossa by using a tipcut condom that covers the resectoscope and the penis. This tech-nique can be used in the diagnosis and management of all kind male anterior urethral lesions at this location.
The Analysis of the Van-Ercis Earthquake, October 23, 2011 Turkey, for the Transportation Systems in the Region  [PDF]
Hakan Aslan
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2013.24009
Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of the Van-Ercis, Turkey, (Mw: 7.2)earthquake occurring on 23rd of October, 2011 on the transportation networks in the region. The basic incentivefor this research is to conceptualise the reliability and performance of the networks after the earthquake through the operational and topological analysis of the system. The demand and composition of the traffic along with the behaviour of the pedestrians were taken into account to evaluate the performance of the networks. In addition, the general structure of the cities and towns, as far as planning is concerned, is also paid attention and regarded as one of the main elements for the appraisal. The outcomes obtained are thought very important to be guidance for the expected Istanbul earthquake in the near future.

Automated Routing Control System of Local Area Network Segment  [PDF]
Zafer Al-Makhadmee
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53030
Abstract:

Automated Routing Control System supersedes the prior approach to LAN redundancy which provides two or more LANs and each has a network (LAN) controller coupled to data communication devices. Devices require some software to switch between the network (LAN) controllers to counter some network segment failures. This approach is proven to be very costly due to demands for off-the-shelf data communication devices with built-in LAN controller drivers [1]. Automated Routing Control System, is the ultimate solution to the growing demands for inexpensive (less costly) and less difficult approach which requires less modification rather than upgrade of network devices yet it minimizes data and information exchange losses and interruptions caused by connection failures within the network and lessens the task of managing a complex network having many segments rather than subnets under a centralized monitoring and management. Automated Routing Control System rather than mechanism is a realistic approach applied to meet the ever growing demands for reliability, high efficiency and availability within data and information exchange networks.

Temperature Dependence of the Raman Intensity and the Bandwidth Close to the Order-Disorder Phase Transition in NaNO3  [PDF]
Hamit Yurtseven, Sukran Aslan
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2012.223038
Abstract: We analyze the temperature dependence of the Raman intensity using the experimental data according to a power-law formula close to the order-disorder transition (Tc = 549 K) in NaNO 3. From this analysis, we extract the value of β = 0.26 as the critical exponent for the order parameter, which indicates a tricritical phase transition in this crystalline system. Using the temperature dependence of the order parameter, the Raman bandwidth is calculated at various temperatures in NaNO3. Our calculated bandwidths describe adequately the observed behaviour of the order-disorder transition in this crystal.
Secondary school teacher candidates’ attitudes toward science
Cengiz Aslan,Berna Aslan
Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Teachers are one of the most important components of students’ development and it is accepted that teachers’professional and pedagogical knowledge needs to be good enough to respond to students’ needs. Teachers should developpositive attitudes toward science in order to equip their students with the necessary scientific thinking abilities such asdefining the problem, collecting the data, analyzing, and explaining any patterns and solving the problem. Scientific thinkingabilities are important both for daily life and for the educational process. Educating students who value science could bepossible as a result of educating teachers who themselves value science. In this descriptive study, the attitudes of teachercandidates with regard to science are evaluated using the Attitudes toward Science Scale, developed by Patrick A. Vitale andBrenda K. Johnson in 1988. The sample used in the study is 85 students in the field of (a) Mathematic teaching in theDepartment of Secondary Level Science & Mathematic Education, and (b) Turkish Language and Literature teaching atDepartment of Secondary Level Social Science Education. The differences in attitudes were evaluated according to somepsycho-social variables gathered through a personal information form. t-test and ANOVA were used to evaluate thefindings. The results indicate that students perceived the instrumental value of science and the difficulty and complexities ofscience differently, depending on their field of interest. Another important finding is that students who want to apply for adoctoral programme perceive the instrumental value of science differently from that of students who do not intend to applyfor doctoral study. Also, the perception of the participants with regard to the difficulties and complexities of science differaccording to the place they lived most of their lives in terms of rural areas, towns, cities or metropolitan.
Nomograms as Predictive Tools for Prostate Cancer Patients Who Had Radical Prostatectomy  [PDF]
Saadettin Eskicorapci, Cenk Acar, Zafer Sinik, Zafer Aybek, Michael Kattanb
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2011.13009
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer for men in the developed countries. Radical prostatectomy is the most preferred treatment modality for localized prostate cancer. Individual decision making is necessary for each patient because of the diversities in the biological characteristics of the prostate cancer. The prediction of pathologic stage, prognosis and cancer specific mortality after curative therapy and quality of life issues are essential for counseling and tailoring treatment in possible candidates of radical prostatectomy. Several studies demonstrated that nomograms are the best predictive tools regarding the other prediction models. For better understanding the nomograms in radical prostatectomy patients, they should be classified according to categories for their use. PSA, Gleason grade and clinical stage are seemed to be the most important prognostic factors in patients who are candidates for radical prostatectomy. Additionally, the pathological parameters are remarkable prognostic criteria. The Partin tables for predicting the radical prostatectomy pathology and Kattan nomograms for predicting the biochemical recurrences free survival rates are the most frequently used nomograms. Today, these nomograms should not replace the clinical decisions but they give significant information for the patients’ prognosis, treatment selection and follow up.
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