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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198783 matches for " Zachary N. Senwo "
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Enzymatic Hydrolysis of an Organic Sulfur Compound  [PDF]
Terrence G. Gardner, Zachary N. Senwo
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2019.71001
Abstract: Sulfatases which cleave sulfate esters in biological systems are key enzymes that deserve special attention due to their significant roles in organic sulfur (OS) mineralization and inorganic sulfur (\"\") release. In this study, in-vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate S bonded substrate hydrolysis by a commercially available arylsulfatase (EC from Aerobacter aerogenes. The enzyme-substrate interactions were assessed to determine: 1) rate of hydrolysis, 2) catalytic efficiency, 3) thermal stability, and 4) optimal pH of this enzyme. Arylsulfatase exhibited substrate hydrolysis with a high affinity for p-nitrophenyl sulfate (potassium 4-nitrophenyl sulfate (pNPS)). The optimum activity for the enzyme was observed to occur at a pH of 7.1. The optimal temperature was 37°C but ranged from 35°C - 45°C. The apparent Km and Kcat of the enzyme for pNPS hydrolysis at the optimal pH, and temperature were determined to be 1.03 mM and 75.73 μM/min, respectively. This work defines the catalytic and kinetic properties of arylsulfatase (EC and confirms the optimal conditions for sulfatase activity testing. The resulting information is useful in elucidating the contributions that individual enzymes have for specific reactions rather than relying on traditional total enzyme activity measurements.
Enzymatic activities and kinetic properties of β-glucosidase from selected white rot fungi  [PDF]
Priscilla M. Mfombep, Zachary N. Senwo, Omoanghe S. Isikhuemhen
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.32025

Beta-glucosidase is among the suite of enzymes produced by white rot fungi (WRF) to biodegrade plant biomass. This study investigated the enzymatic activities and kinetic properties of β-glucosidase from seventeen WRF comprised of the following species from various geographical locations: Pleurotus ostreatus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus squamosus, Trametes versicolor, Lentinula edodes, and Grifola frondosa. All the WRF studied showed β-glucosidase activities. Significant variations in protein and carbohydrate contents were also recorded. Beta-glucosidase activities after 30 min of incubation ranged from 6.4 μg (T. versicolor) to 225 μg (G. frondosa). The calculated kinetic constant (Km) ranged from 0.47 μM (A. auricular-1120) to 719 μM (L. edodes-

Phosphatase Hydrolysis of Organic Phosphorus Compounds  [PDF]
Irenus A. Tazisong, Zachary N. Senwo, Zhongqi He
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2015.32005
Abstract: Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of their significant roles in organic phosphorus (OP) mineralization to inorganic available forms (Pi). This work 1) compared the catalytic potentials of commercially acid phosphatase from wheat germ, sweet potato, and potato, and alkaline phosphatase from E. coli; 2) demonstrated that the rate of hydrolysis, catalytic efficiency, thermal stability, and optimal pH of these enzymes depended on enzyme sources and the stereochemical or stereoisomeric structures of the substrates; 3) revealed that both acid and alkaline phosphatases exhibited broad range of substrate hydrolysis with high affinity for p-nitrophenyl phosphate bis (cyclohexylammonium) than the widely used p-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium hexahydrate for phosphatase assay. Sweet potato had relatively higher reaction kinetics (Vmax, Km, Kcat, Kcat/Km) values with most substrates tested. The order of catalytic activity was in the order: sweet potato > wheat germ > potato, while the order of substrate hydrolyzed was: PNPBC > PNP > PNP2A2E > DG6P2Na > DG6PNa > Bis-PNP > phytate. The optimum pH for the acid phosphatase was observed to be 5.0. Generally, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was similar to that of acid phosphatase with optimal pH between 10 and 13, depending on the substrates. Knowledge derived from this work would be helpful in enzyme catalysis in soils and water environments.
Soil maltase activity by a glucose oxidase–perioxidase system
Priscilla M. Mfombep,Zachary N. Senwo
3 Biotech , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13205-012-0050-z
Abstract: The enzyme maltase (glucoinvertase; glucosidosucrase; maltase-glucoamylase; α-glucopyranosidase; glucosidoinvertase; α-d-glucosidase; α-glucoside hydrolase; α-1,4-glucosidase EC, is involved in the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-α-glucosidic linkages and certain oligosaccharides into glucose which is an important energy source for soil microbes. This enzyme originates from different sources, which include plants, seaweeds, protozoa, fungi, bacteria, vertebrates, and invertebrates. The assay of soil maltase using maltose as substrate and the released glucose determined using a glucose oxidase–peroxidase system has not been explored or investigated to the best of our knowledge. A simple assay protocol using this system is proposed to evaluate and characterize maltase activity in soils. The protocol involves the release of glucose (determined using a glucose oxidase–peroxidase colorimetric approach) when 1 g soil is treated with toluene and incubated with 5 mM maltose in 67 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at 37 °C for 1 h. The optimal activity using this procedure was at pH 5.0 and decreased at temperatures above 70 °C. The calculated K m values ranged from 0.8 to 6.5 mM, and are comparable to those of enzymes purified from microorganisms. The Arrhenius equation plots for the activity in the four soils were linear between 20 and 70 °C. The activation energy values ranged from 34.1 to 57.2 kJ mol 1, the temperature coefficients (Q 10) ranged from 1.5 to 1.9 (avg. = 1.7), and the coefficients of variation (CV) of the proposed assay protocol for the soils used was <6%. While we recognize the availability of established assay protocols to determine soil α-glucosidase (referred in other literature as maltase) activity based on the p-nitrophenol (artificial product) released from p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (artificial substrate), our interest was to assay its activity by determining the glucose (natural product) released from maltose (natural substrate).
Biodegradation and Sugar Release from Canola Plant Biomass by Selected White Rot Fungi  [PDF]
Omoanghe S. Isikhuemhen, Nona A. Mikiashvili, Zachary N. Senwo, Elijah I. Ohimain
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.46045
Abstract: Canola crop is rich in plant biomass. It is considered a major cash crop in North America and a potential source for biofuel. We evaluated six strains of white rot basidiomycetes under solid state fermentation (SSF) for their potentials to secrete oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes to biodegrade canola plant biomass (CPB), and release sugars. Fuscoporia gilva and Pleurotus tuberregium produced high amount of laccase (440.86 U/L and 480.63 U/L at day 7), as well as carboxylmethylcellulase (CMCase) (4.78 U/mL at day 21 and 3.13 U/mL at day 14) and xylanase (4.48 U/mL and 7.8 U/mL at day 21), respectively. Bjerkandera adusta showed high amount of MnP (50.4 U/L) and peroxidase (64.5 U/L), relative to the other strains. Loss of organic matter peaked after 21 days of incubation in all the tested strains; however, the best result (34.0%) was shown in P. tuberregium. The highest lignin loss was observed in Coriolopsis caperata strains. Among the sugar polymers, hemicellulose was highly degraded by P. tuberregium and P. pulmonarius (4.1% - 4.6%), while cellulose (3.3% - 4.3%) was mainly degraded by F. gilva and B. adusta. Glucose was the dominant sugar released by all the fungi tested, with the highest concentration of 1.25 mg/mL produced by B. adusta at day 14 of incubation. Results indicate that selected white rot fungi can achieve significant delignification of CPB within 14 days of solid state fermentation. Their importance in low cost pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass prior to conversion into biofuels and bio-products of economic importance is discussed.
Phosphorus Adsorption of Some Brazilian Soils in Relations to Selected Soil Properties  [PDF]
Valdinar Ferreira Melo, Sandra Cátia Pereira Uch?a, Zachary N. Senwo, Ronilson José Pedroso Amorim
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2015.55010

A major nutritional problem to crops grown in highly weathered Brazilian soils is phosphorus (P) deficiencies linked to their low availability and the capacity of the soils to fix P in insoluble forms. Our studies examined factors that might influence P behavior in soils of the Amazon region. This study was conducted to evaluate the maximum phosphate adsorption capacity (MPAC) of the soils developed from mafic rocks (diabase), their parent materials and other factors resulting in the formation of eutrophic soils having A chernozemic horizon associated with Red Nitosols (Alfisol) and Red Latosols (Oxisol) of the Amazonian environment. The MPAC was determined in triplicates as a function of the remnant P values. The different concentrations used to determine the MPAC allowed maximum adsorption values to be reached for all soils. The Latosol (Oxisol) and Nitosol (Alfisol) soils presented higher phosphate adsorption values that were attributed to the oxidic mineralogy and high clay texture while the Chernosol (Mollisol) soils presented the lowest phosphate adsorption values.

Microbial Compositions and Enzymes of a Forest Ecosystem in Alabama: Initial Response to Thinning and Burning Management Selections  [PDF]
Fritz A. Ntoko, Terrence G. Gardner, Zachary N. Senwo, Veronica Acosta-Martinez
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.83021
Abstract: Prescribed burning and tree thinning are commonly used restoration practices for US forests management to increase forest productivity and enhance plant and animal diversity. The impact of these practices in Alabama’s Bankhead National Forest (BNF) to soil microbial components and overall forest soil health are unknown. We hypothesized that microbial assemblages and enzyme activities are continuously changing in forest ecosystems especially due to management selections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess changes in microbial community compositions (fungal vs bacterial populations) via fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling and several enzyme activities (β-glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase) critical to soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and biogeochemical cycling. In this forest, heavily-thinned plots without burning or less frequent burning treatments seemed to provide more favorable conditions (higher pH and lower C:N ratios) for C and N mineralization. This may explain a slight increase (by 12%) detected in fungi:bacteria (F:B) ratio in the heavily-thinned plots relative to the control. Thinned (lightly and heavily) plots showed greater ligninolytic (laccase and MnP) activities and lower β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activities compared to the no-thinned plots probably due to increase depositions of woody recalcitrant C materials. We observed significant but negative correlations between the ligninolytic laccase and manganese peroxidase (Lac and MnP) enzymes respectively, with MBC (?0.45* and ?0.68** respectively) and MBN (?0.43* and ?0.65** respectively). Prescribed burning treatment reduced microbial biomass C and N of the 9-yr burned plot/lightly thinned plotsprobably due to depletion of labile C sources with the high temperatures, leaving mostly recalcitrant C sources as available soil substrates. Gram-positive bacteria (i15:0, a15:0, i17:0, and a17:0), actinomycetes (10-Me17:0, 10-Me18:0), AMF (16:1ω5c), and saprophytic fungi (18:1ω9c), largely contributed to the microbial compositions. This study bridges knowledge gaps in our understanding of microbial community compositions and enzyme-mediated processes in repeatedly burned and thinned forest ecosystems.
Proteomic Analysis of Soybean Roots under Aluminum Stress
Dechassa Duressa,Khairy Soliman,Robert Taylor,Zachary Senwo
International Journal of Plant Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/282531
Abstract: Toxic levels of aluminum (Al) in acid soils inhibit root growth and cause substantial reduction in yields of Al-sensitive crops. Aluminum-tolerant cultivars detoxify Al through multiple mechanisms that are currently not well understood at genetic and molecular levels. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in soybean Al tolerance and toxicity, we conducted proteomic analysis of soybean roots under Al stress using a tandem combination of 2-D-DIGE, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics tools and Al-tolerant (PI 416937) and Al-sensitive (Young) soybean genotypes at 6, 51 or 72 h of Al treatment. Comparison of the protein profile changes revealed that aluminum induced Al tolerance related proteins and enzymes in Al-tolerant PI 416937 but evoked proteins related to general stress response in Al-sensitive Young. Specifically, Al upregulated: malate dehydrogenase, enolase, malate oxidoreductase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase, in PI 416937 but not in Young. These enzymes contribute to increased synthesis of citrate, a key organic acid involved in Al detoxification. We postulate that simultaneous transgenic overexpression of several of these enzymes would be a robust genetic engineering strategy for developing Al-tolerant crops. 1. Introduction Toxic levels of aluminum (Al) in acid soils inhibit root growth and cause substantial reduction in yields of Al-sensitive crops [1, 2]. Its toxicity mechanisms include interference with nutrient and water uptake and translocation [3], disruption of calcium homeostatis [4], disruption of cytoskeleton [5, 6], callose deposition in apoplast that affects movement of substances from cell to cell [7], lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species production [8], and interference with cell division and elongation [9, 10]. In concert, these disorders thwart root growth and development that is typically manifested in stunted and swollen root system at the morphological level [11, 12]. Al disrupts cellular components and processes by high binding affinity to phosphate, sulfate, and carbonyl functional groups of cellular components in apoplast and symplast [11]. Perhaps as a direct and parallel evolutionary response to the nature of Al-ligand interaction, plants secret substances that possess these functional groups namely, organic acids [13], phenolics [14–16], and phosphate and polypeptides [17, 18] to bind and detoxify Al in the rhizosphere. Sequestration of Al in the rhizosphere with root secreted organic acids mainly citrate, malate, and oxalate is a common and well-documented physiological mechanism of
Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems
Regine Mankolo,Chandra Reddy,Zachary Senwo,Ermson Nyakatawa,Seshadri Sajjala
Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy2030187
Abstract: Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT) systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc.) have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT) systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT), and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL) application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C) content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN) soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.
Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama
Terrence Gardner,V. Acosta-Martinez,Zachary Senwo,Scot E. Dowd
Diversity , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/d3030308
Abstract: Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce ( Lactuca sativa), potato ( Solanum tuberosum), onion ( Allium cepa L), broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall fescue pasture grass ( Festuca arundinacea). Several FAMEs ( a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c) varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level) at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0) compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7) soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7); whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3). The predominant phyla (85%) in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria), and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more abundant under pasture compared to the cultivated soils under broccoli, potato, onion and lettuce. This study found significant differences in microbial community structure and diversity, and enzyme activities of nutrient cycling in this organic farming system under different rhizospheres, which can have implications in soil health and metabolic functioning, and the yield and nutritional value of each crop.
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