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Socio-Economic Characters and Activities of Support Zone Communities in Gashaka Gumti National Park  [PDF]
Zacharia Buba Yaduma, Joyrose Enebuse Adaeze, Mary Omowumi Oluwole, Bijida Zacharia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106200
Abstract: The study was conducted at Gashaka Gumti National Park to determine socio-economic activities and their relationship with the forest. The Result obtained shows that, the age of the respondents was presented in Table 1. The pooled result indicated that there were 29.82%, for the age class of 36 - 45 years, 28.77%, for the age class of 26 - 35, 20.35%, for the age class of 15 - 25; 13.68%, for the age class of 46 - 55; and 7.37% for the age class of 56 years and above. The result on gender indicated that Males were 75.78%, while female was 24.21%, of the population. The result of marital status revealed that married respondents recorded 58.24%; singles had 29.82% while the widows recorded 11.93%. The results of the family size indicated that the family size of 10 - 14 recorded 37.54%; 5 - 9 family size had 22.46%; 15 - 19 recorded 20.70%; 1 - 4 had 11.23% while 20 and above recorded 8.07%. The result of occupation of the respondent indicated that farmers/grazers recorded 44.91%; business men/women were 18.59%; public servants recorded 14.74%, students were 12.98%, while house wives/widows recorded 8.77%. The educational qualification of the respondents revealed that non formal education recorded 37.89%, primary education recorded 21.40%, adult education, had 15.78%, and post primary education recorded 15.78% while tertiary education had 9.12%. The result of income level of the respondents revealed that N30,000 - N39,000 had 34.38%, N20,000 - N29,000 recorded 23.86%, N10,000 - N19,000, had 23.16%, N40,000 - N 49,000, had 10.88% and N50,000 and above recorded 7.72%. The research reviles that the greater are still in their early forties, but the level of education was lower among the population and which may be the result of the lower income among the population; of which it may have a negative impact on the survival of the forest and its biodiversity. Therefore, more income and better education may help in maintaining a balanced relationship between the population and its environs.
Landcover Change of Gashaka Gumti National Park within 21 Years Window (1991 to 2011) Using Satellite Imageries  [PDF]
Ibrahim Ahamed Umar, Zacharia Buba Yaduma, Ephraim Edward Dishan, Joyrose Enebuse Adaeze
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105750
The study was conducted at Gashaka Gumti National Park to assess the land cover changes of Gashaka Gumti National Park within 21 years window (1991 to 2011) using satellite imageries. Results showed that in 1991, 2001 and 2011, Guinea Savannah covered 41% (2762.01 km2), 38% (2565.01 km2) and 36% (2449.23 km2) of the land area respectively. Derived Savannah covered 31% (2086.85 km2), 33% (2185.41 km2) and 31% (2072.39 km2) respectively in the stated years. Montane Forest covered 12% (775.28 km2), 12% (822.02 km2) and 14% (941.11 km2) respectively in the years under consideration. For Gallery Forest, 16%, 17% and 19% were recorded for the stated years respectively. This indicated that Guinea Savannah decreased by 7.13% (﹣197 km2), Derived Savanna, Montane Forest and Gallery Forest increased by 4.72% ( 98.56 km2), 6.03% ( 46.74 km2) and 4.67% ( 51.7 km2) respectively between 1991 and 2011. Between 2001 and 2011, Guinea Savanna and Derived savanna decreased by 4.51% (115.78 km2) and 5.17% (113.02 km2), respectively, while Montane and Gallery forests increased by 14.49% ( 119.09 km2) and 9.47% ( 109.71 km2) respectively. The changes recorded were considered marginal. Similarly, the temperature and rainfall dynamics established in the study were not of such magnitude that could negatively impact on the landcover classes.
Quantifying Rooftop Rainwater Harvest Potential: Case of Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Mbeya Tanzania  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510098

The advantages that the rooftop rainwater harvesting system has as a source of water supply have been examined. The observed daily rainfall records of 10 years and the current total roof area of the facilities at Mbeya University of Science and Technology as the catchment area were used. Using a water balance model to determine the suitable water use that will cover 100% of the time, the model indicated that for the current roof area a water supply of 120 lts per day can be met when a storage tank whose capacity is 13.5 m3 is installed. When values higher that 120 l/day are simulated a tank of higher capacity is required to meet the water demand. The study recommends on the necessity of installing rooftop rainwater harvesting system so as to increase the water supply reliability and reduction of cost. The selection of a suitable storage tank capacity should take into consideration the future development plans so as to reduce the construction cost of new storage tank.

Positioning Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Tanzania in the Systems of Innovation Perspective  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.41004

The chronological development of universities ranges from the state at which universities are considered to be knowledge accumulators followed by knowledge factories and finally the knowledge hubs. The various national systems of innovations are aligned with the knowledge hubs and it involves a substantial amount of research activities. The newly established Mbeya University of Science and Technology is recognised as a knowledge hub in some particular niches. However, there are a limited number of research activities conducted at the university and this study is an attempt to identify the reasons that limit research activities. Well-structured research questionnaires were designed and distributed to academic staff members and thereafter the respondents were analysed by using SPSS software package. The lack of knowledge, skills and funds as well as equipment was earmarked as the reason that hindered the research activities. Therefore, resources are required to improve the capabilities of the staff members and the study recommends on the need for deliberate efforts to improve the knowledge of the staff members with respect to research activities.

Paul Newman: A Hausa–English Dictionary
M Buba
Lexikos , 2008,
Abstract: Paul Newman. A Hausa–English Dictionary. 2007, x + 243 pp. ISBN 978-0-300-12246-6. New Haven/London: Yale University Press. Price: £40.
Paul Newman: A Hausa–English Dictionary
Malami Buba
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/18--501
Abstract: Hausa (Chadic/Afroasiatic) is a major world language, spoken by more than 40 million people who are mostly found in northern Nigeria and the Republic of Niger. A sizeable number reside in other parts of Nigeria and the major cities of West Africa (Accra, Kumasi, Douala, Cotonou) and beyond. The history of its documentation dates back more than 150 years, with the most comprehensive grammars of any African language (see Wolff 1993, Jaggar 2001, for example). In the context of dictionary making, the language has also been the subject of lexicographic interest for more than a century, ranging from the pioneering work of Robinson (1899) to the large and accurate dictionary by Bargery (1934). Hausa has also had the benefit of more than a dozen other dictionaries, including Abraham (1962), Newman and Newman (1977), Mijinguini (1987), Newman (1990), Caron and Amfani (1997), Awde (1996) and more recently CNHN (2006). All these efforts have been acknowledged by the author in his introductory remarks. And it is against this comprehensive treatment of Hausa lexicography that the proper place of Newman's A Hausa–English Dictionary needs to be examined.
Developing a Web-based agricultural community information centre for rural farmers
Zacharia Letshela
South African Journal of Information Management , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/sajim.v1i2/3.51
Abstract: To follow
Differential Evolution for Urban Transit Routing Problem  [PDF]
Ahmed Tarajo Buba, Lai Soon Lee
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.414002
Abstract: The urban transit routing problem (UTRP) involves the construction of route sets on existing road networks to cater for the transit demand efficiently. This is an NP-hard problem, where the generation of candidate route sets can lead to a number of potential routes being discarded on the grounds of infeasibility. This paper presents a new repair mechanism to complement the existing terminal repair and the make-small-change operators in dealing with the infeasibility of the candidate route set. When solving the UTRP, the general aim is to determine a set of transit route networks that achieves a minimum total cost for both the passenger and the operator. With this in mind, we propose a differential evolution (DE) algorithm for solving the UTRP with a specific objective of minimizing the average travel time of all served passengers. Computational experiments are performed on the basis of benchmark Mandl’s Swiss network. Computational results from the proposed repair mechanism are comparable with the existing repair mechanisms. Furthermore, the combined repair mechanisms of all three operators produced very promising results. In addition, the proposed DE algorithm outperformed most of the published results in the literature.
Estimation of Extreme Flows in Nkana River to Verify the Adequacy of Naming’ongo Bridge Waterway  [PDF]
Zacharia Katambara, Joseph J. Msambichaka, Joseph Mkisi
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.53040

The response by the government of Tanzania to food security and poverty alleviation in the Naming’ongo area in Mbozi District has been to develop Naming’ongo irrigation scheme as well as construct a bridge across River Nkana to connect the farms and other parts of the district to facilitate a reliable transportation of the produce to the market. The Australian Water Balance Model that was calibrated by using 10 years data from a nearby sub-catchment of Mbarali. The Naming’ongo Sub-catchment was delineated form a 30 m digital elevation model. The observed rainfall was obtained from Mbozi Meteorological station. The study approximated the peak flows in River Nkana for a return period of 50 years to be slightly above 560 m3/s. This was considered to be adequate for the proposed structure. The study recommends that when undertaking human activities such as deforestation and cultivation an account for soil and environmental conservation should be considered. While it is necessary to establish a monitoring system within the catchment, the designs of future hydraulic structures should incorporate stream flow measuring facilities.

P. S. Yaduma,Dabo B. Hammad
Academic Research International , 2013,
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to find out the determinants of entrepreneurial potentials among vocational technical teacher education students in North eastern states of Nigeria. The population of the study was 766 while the sample was 497. A non dichotomous structured questionnaire was subjected to validation. The internalconsistency reliability yielded 0.89 using the alpha method. The methods of analysis used include mean, standard deviation and analysis of variance. The respondents differ significantly on the characteristics that determine entrepreneurial potentials. Thus a post-hoc test was conducted using Turkey Honestly Significant Difference which revealed that the difference was from students’ weaknesses in identifying the personality potentials that induce entrepreneurial traits. One of the major findings was that ability to work extra hours was considered as an undesirable trait forpotential entrepreneur.
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