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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192037 matches for " Za?d; Teklehaimanot "
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Maternal psychosocial well-being in Eritrea: application of participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis in complex emergency settings
Almedom,Astier M.; Tesfamichael,Berhe; Yacob,Abdu; Debretsion,Zad; Teklehaimanot,Kidane; Beyene,Teshome; Kuhn,Kira; Alemu,Zemui;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000500010
Abstract: objective: to establish the context in which maternal psychosocial well-being is understood in war-affected settings in eritrea. method: pretested and validated participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis were employed to allow participants to engage in processes of qualitative data collection, on-site analysis, and interpretation. findings: maternal psychosocial well-being in eritrea is maintained primarily by traditional systems of social support that are mostly outside the domain of statutory primary care. traditional birth attendants provide a vital link between the two. formal training and regular supplies of sterile delivery kits appear to be worthwhile options for health policy and practice in the face of the post-conflict challenges of ruined infrastructure and an overstretched and/or ill-mannered workforce in the maternity health service. conclusion: methodological advances in health research and the dearth of data on maternal psychosocial well-being in complex emergency settings call for scholars and practitioners to collaborate in creative searches for sound evidence on which to base maternity, mental health and social care policy and practice. participatory methods facilitate the meaningful engagement of key stakeholders and enhance data quality, reliability and usability.
Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia I. Patterns of lagged weather effects reflect biological mechanisms
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch, Awash Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-41
Abstract: Daily average number of cases was modeled using a robust Poisson regression with rainfall, minimum temperature and maximum temperatures as explanatory variables in a polynomial distributed lag model in 10 districts of Ethiopia. To improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions, we grouped the districts into two climatic zones, hot and cold.In cold districts, rainfall was associated with a delayed increase in malaria cases, while the association in the hot districts occurred at relatively shorter lags. In cold districts, minimum temperature was associated with malaria cases with a delayed effect. In hot districts, the effect of minimum temperature was non-significant at most lags, and much of its contribution was relatively immediate.The interaction between climatic factors and their biological influence on mosquito and parasite life cycle is a key factor in the association between weather and malaria. These factors should be considered in the development of malaria early warning system.Malaria epidemics due to Plasmodium falciparum are reported frequently in the East African highlands [1-6]. Immunity to malaria in the populations of these epidemic-prone regions is often incomplete, so that epidemics cause high case fatality rates among all age groups. In 1958, a malaria epidemic covering over 250,000 square kilometers resulted in an estimated three million cases and 150,000 deaths in Ethiopia [2]. Since then, large scale epidemics of malaria have been noted every five to eight years. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of malaria early warning systems [7-9] to predict where and when malaria epidemics will occur, with adequate lead-time to target scarce resources for prevention activities. Unusual meteorological conditions, such as especially high rainfall or high temperature, are often cited retrospectively as the precipitating factors for epidemics [10,11]. There have also been formal attempts to predict epidemics by the u
Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based prediction systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz, Awash Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-44
Abstract: Expected case numbers were modeled using a Poisson regression with lagged weather factors in a 4th-degree polynomial distributed lag model. For each week, the numbers of malaria cases were predicted using coefficients obtained using all years except that for which the prediction was being made. The effectiveness of alerts generated by the prediction system was compared against that of alerts based on observed cases. The usefulness of the prediction system was evaluated in cold and hot districts.The system predicts the overall pattern of cases well, yet underestimates the height of the largest peaks. Relative to alerts triggered by observed cases, the alerts triggered by the predicted number of cases performed slightly worse, within 5% of the detection system. The prediction-based alerts were able to prevent 10–25% more cases at a given sensitivity in cold districts than in hot ones.The prediction of malaria cases using lagged weather performed well in identifying periods of increased malaria cases. Weather-derived predictions identified epidemics with reasonable accuracy and better timeliness than early detection systems; therefore, the prediction of malarial epidemics using weather is a plausible alternative to early detection systems.Malaria epidemics are reported frequently and have caused high morbidity and mortality among all age groups in the African highlands [1-4]. Early detection and accurate forecasting of the time, place and intensity of these epidemics is important for emergency preparedness, planning and response [5,6]. Considerable efforts are being made to promote, develop and implement early warning systems for malaria epidemics in Africa [5,7]. Ideally, public health and vector control workers would have access to a system that alerts them when substantial numbers of excess cases are expected, and such alerts should be sensitive (so that alerts are reliably generated when excess cases are imminent), specific (so that there are few "false alarms") an
The Complementarity Effect for Cdc25 Phosphatase Inhibitors  [PDF]
Wassila Soufi, Meriem Merad, Fa?za Boukli, Sa?d Ghalem
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2011.12003
Abstract: Cdc25 phosphatase have been regarded as attractive drug targets for anticancer therapies due to the correlation of their over expression with a wide variety of cancers. They are key regulators of cell cycle progression and play a central role in the checkpoint response to DNA damage. The role of Cdc25 s in cancer has become increasingly evident in recent years. More than 20 studies of patient samples are from diverse cancers show significant overexpression of Cdc25 with frequent correlation to clinical outcome. Recent screening and design efforts have yielded novel classes of inhibitors that show specificity for the Cdc25 s over other phosphatases and cause cell cycle arrest in vivo. Until now, quinone derivatives are among the most efficient inhibitors of Cdc25 phosphatase activity. Our research objective is to study the inhibition of the phosphathase Cdc25 through the molecular modeling methods.
Comparative Evaluation of Farmers’ Perception and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and Variability in Bako Tibe, Ethiopia and Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chizoba Obianuju Oranu, Anthonia Ifeyinwa Achike, Amanuel Zenebe, Abadi Teklehaimanot
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.74038
Abstract: Comparing the perception of farmers to climate change and variability in Bako Tibe, Ethiopia and Abeokuta, Nigeria is important in promoting sustainable agriculture and in understanding the impact of climate change and variability on agriculture in Africa. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed in both study areas using well structure questionnaire. The study describes the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers using descriptive statistics and thereafter the perception of Bako Tibe and Abeokuta farmers to climate change and variability was examined using Likert type scale. The binary logistics regression was later used to ascertain the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on perception of the farmers in both study areas. The farmers in both study areas believed that there have been changes in the amount of rainfall and temperature in the past thirty years. The farmers in Bako agreed that there have been increased temperature and decreased rainfall, contrary to the farmer’s perception in Abeokuta. The binary logistic regression results showed that socioeconomic characteristics of farmers in Bako Tibe, have no effect on the perception of farmers on climate change and variability. However, in Abeokuta, age, land ownership, and distance to market had an effect on the perception on the farmers on climate change and variability. The adaptation strategies to climate change and variability commonly used by Bako Tibe farmers was, improved seed (drought resistance) adaptation method, while most farmers in Abeokuta used soil moisture conservation adaptation method. The study recommends that government and Non-Governmental Organization of both countries should promote more adaptation and mitigation practices to climate change and variability through policy interventions to help curb the impact of climate change and variability to agriculture.
Effect of dissolved calcium on the formation of secondary attachment structures in different types of branches of Chondracanthus chamissoi (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales)
Otaíza,Ricardo D; Fonseca,Felipe G;
Revista de biología marina y oceanografía , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-19572011000200016
Abstract: development of secondary attachment structures (sas) was evaluated in apical fragments of pinnules, and basal and lateral branches in the carrageenophyte chondracanthus chamissoi. when no dissolved calcium was added to the culture medium, most basal and lateral branches initiated sas formation, while most pinnules remained unchanged. calcium addition greatly increased the proportion of fragments developing sas, and also increased the stage of development achieved by sas in all branch types. we suggest that sas formation by basal branches contributes to a complex attachment system. sas formation by lateral branches and pinnules may contribute to vegetative propagation following fragmentation of thalli.
FAST scanning in the developing world emergency department
ZA Smith, N Postma, D Wood
South African Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives. To assess the utility of an existing ultrasound machine for the purposes of focused assessment sonography in trauma (FAST) scanning in a developing world emergency department (ED). Design. Prospective study undertaken over a 12-month period. Trauma patients attending the ED were FAST scanned by one of three trained emergency medicine doctors. Setting. The ED at a government hospital in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), the referral centre for 22 peripheral hospitals. Subjects. All patients presenting to the ED who had sustained abdominal or thoracic trauma. Outcome measures. Scans were recorded as positive or negative for free intra-abdominal or pericardial fluid. All results were confirmed by computed tomography, laparotomy or a second trained ED ultrasonographer, followed by a period of clinical observation. Results. 72 FAST scans were included, 52 for blunt trauma and 20 for penetrating trauma. Of the 72 scans, 15 (20.8%) were positive. FAST scanning had 100% specificity and overall sensitivity of 71.4%. When considering blunt trauma alone the sensitivity improved to 81.3%, while in penetrating trauma it was much poorer (62.5%). Conclusions. We propose a valuable role for FAST scanning in all peripheral hospitals for the assessment of patients sustaining blunt trauma. In rural areas with limited resources FAST scans may assist in the appropriate timely transfer of trauma patients for further imaging or definitive surgical intervention.
New Bio-Flocculatious Effect and Its Examination  [PDF]
Zoltán Hodai, Dóra Rippel-Peth?,za Horváth, Laszló Hanák, Róbert Bocsi
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.22013
Abstract: Algaetechnology is a significant scope of the international research and developmental work because it’s a green technology that reduces the utterance of impurities and works as a renewing energy source. The CO2 from stack gases of the various flows of manufacturing and the nitrogen from certain technical wastewater are necessary for the plants even as algae. The transaction of CO2 with this object and the utilization stand a good chance by hungarian clime with the teamwork from the technical environment. The technology is a new solution in Hungary which eases utterance of the impurities. As a result of our research we expanded alga polities which utilize the CO2 from refinery’s stack gas and they grow intensively in the continental clime, too. The critical points of the technology are the concentration of the algae suspension and the extraction because of the high investment and operating costs and high operational time. The algae technology in this direction depends on this step. Our aim is to separate the algae mass faster and more economical from the starter solution. The optimization of the separating operations and technologies takes notice of the environmental and economic aspects.
Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study
éva Bíró,za ádány, Karolina Kósa
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-871
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation.The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students.Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their worse mental health. Future public health professionals should be better prepared for coping with the challenges they face during their studies. Universities must facilitate this process by providing helping services targeted at those with highest risk, and developing training to improve coping skills. Social support is also a potentially amenable determinant of mental health during higher education.Young adulthood entails remarkable transitions the most important of which is that from studying to employment. This period may have implications for health as lifestyle and habits change for the better or for the worse [1]
Usos múltiplos de plantas do Cerrado: um estudo etnobotanico na comunidade sitio Pindura, Rosário oeste, Mato Grosso, Brasil
Moreira, Déborah Luíza;Guarim-Neto, Germano;
Polibotánica , 2009,
Abstract: em virtude do impacto causado pela agropecuária e pelo acelerado processo de industrializa??o, a flora do cerrado vem sendo profundamente alterada, assim como a cultura popular das pessoas que vivem desse bioma, pelo avan?o da cultura moderna. neste contexto, sob o enfoque da etnobotanica, o presente trabalho tem o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre as espécies e famílias botanicas com potencial de uso no cerrado. a presente pesquisa foi realizada na comunidade sítio pindura, no município de rosário oeste, mato grosso, brasil (lat. 14° 49' 41" s, e long. 56° 24' 51" w). foi utilizada a técnica de "bola de neve" (snow ball), para a escolha dos 35 informantes. para coleta dos dados foram usadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, questionários, e percursos em trilhas no cerrado com moradores da comunidade. no levantamento etnobotanico foram catalogadas 142 espécies, pertencentes a 123 gêneros e distribuídas em 60 famílias botanicas. as espécies vegetais foram inclusas em diversas categorias de uso, tais como: alimentar, constru??o civil, lenha, medicinal, mour?es e cercas, entre outras. foi constatado um grande conhecimento sobre a flora do cerrado, através da intensa utiliza??o de plantas nativas pelos moradores locais. o saber local sobre os recursos vegetais do cerrado tem origem nas adapta??es humanas e intera??es com o ecossistema, conhecimento adquirido através de observa??es e vivências com o meio ambiente, e que possibilita um saber ecológico que é materializado em suas práticas cotidianas.
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