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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2651 matches for " ZHUANG Bingliang "
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Indirect Radiative Forcing and Climatic Effect of the Anthropogenic Nitrate Aerosol on Regional Climate of China

LI Shu,WANG Tijian,ZHUANG Bingliang,HAN Yong,

大气科学进展 , 2009,
Abstract: The regional climate model (RegCM3) and a tropospheric atmosphere chemistry model (TACM) were couplcd, thus a regional climate chemistry modeling system (RegCCMS) was constructed, which was applied to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic nitrate aerosols, indirect radiative forcing, as well as its climatic effect over China. TACM includes the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA and a condensed gas-phase chemistry model. Investigations show that the concentration of nitrate aerosols is relatively high over North and East China with a maximum of 29μg m-3 in January and 8 μg m-3 in July.Due to the influence of air temperature on thermodynamic equilibrium, wet scavenging of precipitation and the monsoon climate, there are obvious seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations. The average indirect radiative forcing at the tropopause due to nitrate aerosols is -1.63 W m-2 in January and -2.65 W m-2 in July, respectively. In some areas, indirect radiative forcing reaches -10 W m-2. Sensitivity tests show that nitrate aerosols make the surface air temperature drop and the precipitation reduce on the national level. The mean changes in surface air temperature and precipitation are -0.13 K and -0.01 mm d-1 in January and -0.09 K and -0.11 mm d-1 in July, respectively, showing significant differences in different regions.
Eddy Covariance Tilt Corrections over a Coastal Mountain Area in South-east China: Significance for Near-Surface Turbulence Characteristics

LIU Li,WANG Tijian,SUN Zhenhai,WANG Qingeng,ZHUANG Bingliang,HAN Yong,LI Shu,

大气科学进展 , 2012,
Abstract: Turbulence characteristics of an atmospheric surface layer over a coastal mountain area were investigated under different coordinate frames. Performances of three methods of coordinate rotation: double rotation (DR), triple rotation (TR), and classic planar-fit rotation (PF) were examined in terms of correction of eddy covariance flux. Using the commonly used DR and TR methods, unreasonable rotation angles are encountered at low wind speeds and cause significant run-to-run errors of some turbulence characteristics. The PF method rotates the coordinate system to an ensemble-averaged plane, and shows large tilt error due to an inaccurate fit plane over variable terrain slopes. In this paper, we propose another coordinate rotation scheme. The observational data were separated into two groups according to wind direction. The PF method was adapted to find an ensemble-averaged streamline plane for each group of hourly runs with wind speed exceeding 1.0 m s-1. Then, the coordinate systems were rotated to their respective best-fit planes for all available hourly observations. We call this the PF10 method. The implications of tilt corrections for the turbulence characteristics are discussed with a focus on integral turbulence characteristics, the spectra of wind-velocity components, and sensible heat and momentum fluxes under various atmospheric stabilities. Our results show that the adapted application of PF provides greatly improved estimates of integral turbulence characteristics in complex terrain and maintains data quality. The comparisons of the sensible heat fluxes for four coordinate rotation methods to fluxes before correction indicate that the PF10 scheme is the best to preserve consistency between fluxes.
Sensitivity analysis of factors affecting atmospheric mercury chemistry
影响大气汞化学过程的敏感因子分析

WANG Tingting,WANG Tijian,ZHUANG Bingliang,SHEN Fanhui,
王婷婷
,王体健,庄炳亮,沈凡卉

环境科学学报 , 2010,
Abstract: To analyze the chemical behavior of atmospheric mercury, the gaseous, aqueous and gas-liquid equilibrium processes associated with mercury chemistry were incorporated into a chemistry box model. This modified box-model was used to simulate the evolution of element mercury (Hg0) and speciated reactive mercury. We performed sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of meteorological factors (e.g., clouds, photolytic rate constants, and temperature) and chemical factors (e.g., the initial volume fraction of gaseous ozone (O3(g)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2(g)), hydroperoxyl radical (HO2(g)), hydroxyl radical (OH(g)) and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0(g)) on Hg0 and speciated reactive mercury, as well as the average conversion rate of Hg0(g). The average conversion rate of Hg0(g) was 2.91% per hour under conditions of moderate air pollution (base case). The results of sensitivity analysis indicate that cloudiness, photolysis rate, temperature, initial volume fraction of O3(g) and Hg0(g) play important roles in determining concentrations of Hg0 and speciated reactive mercury. The greater the amount of cloud, rate of photolysis or initial concentration of O3(g), the shorter the time that is needed for Hg0 and speciated reactive mercury to reach steady state and low equilibrium concentrations, except for gaseous HgO and Hg+. Under these conditions, the highest average conversion rates of Hg0(g) were found. The conversion of Hg0(g) could be inhibited by increasing temperature. The initial volume fraction of Hg0(g) mainly affects the equilibrium concentrations, with no significant effect on its average conversion rate. This finding can be significant for regional or global simulations of mercury depending on the relative importance of these factors.
Pathophysiological Significance of Hepatic Apoptosis
Kewei Wang,Bingliang Lin
ISRN Hepatology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/740149
Abstract: Apoptosis is a classical pathological feature in liver diseases caused by various etiological factors such as drugs, viruses, alcohol, and cholestasis. Hepatic apoptosis and its deleterious effects exacerbate liver function as well as involvement in fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis. An imbalance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities is a prominent characteristic of liver injury. The regulation of apoptosis and antiapoptosis can be a pivotal step in the treatment of liver diseases. 1. Apoptosis Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death. Apoptotic cells are characterized by energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms and obvious morphological changes [1, 2]. These features include membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic process deletes single cell or small clusters of cells without inflammatory response [3]. Apoptotic cells die in a controlled and regulated fashion. This makes apoptosis distinct from other uncontrolled modes of cell death such as necrosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and cornification [4]. Uncontrolled cell death leads to cell lysis, inflammatory response, and serious health problems [5]. Apoptosis is associated with multiple pathophysiological functions. During the embryological stage of mammals, apoptosis is important for the normal development of organs [6]. In adults, apoptosis regulates physiological processes (e.g., removing aged cells) and maintains tissue homeostasis [7]. Dysfunction or dysregulation of the apoptotic program is implicated in a variety of congenital anomalies and pathological conditions such as tumorigenesis, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and others [8]. 2. Hepatic Apoptosis Hepatic apoptosis, as name indicated, means cell suicide in liver. The hepatic apoptosis is different from hepatocyte apoptosis. The hepatocyte apoptosis describes the apoptotic cell death in only hepatocytes (one type of liver cells), but the hepatic apoptosis reflects the interaction of manifold cells in liver and represents a comprehensive outcome of multiple effects. The liver is an organ consisting of several phenotypically distinct cell types, for example, hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, oval cells, and so forth [9]. Predominant hepatocytes make up 70–80% of the liver cells [10]. Hepatocytes manufacture critical circulating proteins, generate bile acid-dependent bile flow, detoxify endo- and xenobiotics, and regulate intermediary metabolism [11]. Hepatocyte injury results
Numerical study on bioaerosol dispersion over southeast coast of China
东南沿海生物气溶胶的扩散模拟研究

LIU Li,WANG Tijian,JIANG Ziqiang,LIU Qing,ZHUANG Bingliang,WANG Qingeng,SUN Zhenhai,
刘丽
,王体健,蒋自强,刘清,庄炳亮,王勤耕,孙振海

环境科学学报 , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) was nested in a regional dispersion model and then integrated in the Regional Air Quality Model System (RegAQMS). Meteorological and turbulent fields needed for RegAQMS were calculated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Atmospheric Boundary Layer model, respectively. The process of dry deposition, wet scavenging, temperature decay, humidity decay, biological aging, and ultra-violet radiation decay of bioaerosols were also incorporated into RegAQMS to describe distribution patterns of bioaerosol concentrations. In the case study of July and August 2008 at southeast coast of China, sensitivity tests of physical and biological process of foot-and-mouth virus were conducted with the improved RegAQMS and the simulated virus concentrations were used for risk and infection assessments. Results of sensitivity tests showed that the average surface concentrations in July and August reduced by 61.9% and 65.6%, respectively, and the contaminated areas reduced by 25.6% and 50.1% if all biological and physical processes were taken into account. Temperature decay was the principal process which affected virus concentration in summer. Biological aging, dry deposition, and wet scavenging were also significant. Relative humidity however had little influence on the concentration. Results of risk and infection assessments showed that most of the research areas were safe or at low level of risk, as reported by previous study. The areas with high level of risk were small, which primarily concentrated at the downwind of two dominating flow directions in the form of narrow strips. The areas of risk regions in July and August were 61.6% and 54.2%, respectively. Infection regions accounted for less than 1% of the whole research region. Ordered flow fields from inshore water and strait terrain contributed to a small diurnal fluctuation of wind direction and horizontal turbulent intensity, which resulted in wider virus diffusion and higher infection risk.
The method of regional air resource assessment and its application in the west coast of Taiwan Strait
区域空气资源的评估方法及其在台湾海峡西岸地区的应用

LIU Li,WANG Tijian,LI Zongkai,ZHUANG Bingliang,XIE Min,WANG Qingeng,SUN Zhenhai,
刘丽
,王体健,李宗恺,庄炳亮,谢旻,王勤耕,孙振海

环境科学学报 , 2011,
Abstract: To meet the requirements of regional atmosphere environment management, the concept of air resource was put forward. Then estimation and assessment methods were presented. A case study was conducted for the domain of the west of Taiwan Strait. Based on the analysis of climate characteristics and various weather systems associated with high levels of air pollution occurring in this area, both the regional and local meteorological fields were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The key factors that affected air resource significantly were selected from the meteorological fields and turbulence parameters. They acted as evaluating indicators of regional air resource. Each of the factors was classified and then graded to determine the weighted coefficient. The total scores of air resource in west Strait were estimated from the weighted sum of the respective factor scores. The levels of air resource were determined subsequently. Finally, spatial distribution of the overall scores and the levels of air resource were obtained. It showed that the air resource over the Strait was of the top grade (5) with the score 18. The grades in the rest were of 2 to 4 with the scores 14 to 18. In general, the air resource in coastal area was most abundant, in inland flat less and in mountainous area the least, showing an inhomogeneous pattern. The results indicated that the method proposed in this paper was a reasonable solution to assess regional air resource. There will be a great application prospect for regulation and management of atmosphere environment.
东亚夏季气溶胶—云—降水分布特征及其相互影响的资料分析
石睿 SHI Rui,王体健 WANG Tijian,李树 LI Shu,庄炳亮 ZHUANG Bingliang,蒋自强 JIANG Ziqiang,廖镜彪 LIAO Jingbiao,殷长秦 YIN Changqin
大气科学 , 2015, DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.1404.13276
Abstract: 东亚季风气候受到自然因素和人类活动的共同影响,而人类活动因子中气溶胶的作用尤为关键,采用诊断分析的手段研究东亚地区气溶胶的特征及其与云和降水的相互关系具有重要的科学意义。本文利用MODIS(moderate-resolutionimagingspectroradiometer)气溶胶和云资料以及TRMM(TropicalRainfallMeasuringMission)降水数据,分析了东亚夏季气溶胶、云、降水的时空分布特征,研究了气溶胶与云和降水的相互关系。结果表明:中国四个典型地区(珠三角、长三角、四川盆地、京津唐)2001~2011年夏季(6~8月)平均气溶胶光学厚度(AerosolOpticalDepth,AOD)变化范围为0.40~0.68,云光学厚度平均值为18.7~23.6,水云云滴有效粒子半径在20.2~25.6μm,冰云有效粒子半径在12.9~15.3μm,云水路径为222.2~243.8gm-2,降水强度平均值3.6~8.6mmd-1;珠三角气溶胶光学厚度有显著降低趋势,年倾向为-3.31%,四川盆地云滴有效粒子半径(冰云、水云)和云水路径年变化趋势为-0.42%、-0.49%和-1.26%,京津唐夏季降水量年增幅为3.24%。气溶胶光学厚度和云光学厚度呈正相关,相关系数最大为0.77;在相对湿度较低(30%~50%)情况下,气溶胶光学厚度与云滴有效粒子半径呈负相关;气溶胶光学厚度与云水路径呈正相关,相关系数最大为0.92;相对于低污染情况(AOD<0.5),高污染情况(AOD>0.5)下出现大雨(>10mmd-1)的频率增加了6.6%~19.1%,小雨(<1mmd-1)的频率减少了0.72%~7.3%。在水汽含量较少的情况下,气溶胶的增加导致云滴有效粒子半径的减少;气溶胶增强了南方地区的对流性降水,抑制了北方地区层云降水。
Novel Finite Difference Discretization of Interface Boundary Conditions for Stablized Explicit-Implicit Domain Decomposition Methods  [PDF]
Yu Zhuang
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.26047
Abstract:

Stabilized explicit-implicit domain decomposition is a group of methods for solving time-dependent partial difference equations of the parabolic type on parallel computers. They are efficient, stable, and highly parallel, but suffer from a restriction that the interface boundaries must not intersect inside the domain. Various techniques have been proposed to handle this restriction. In this paper, we present finite difference schemes for discretizing the equation spatially, which is of high simplicity, easy to implement, attains second-order spatial accuracy, and allows interface boundaries to intersect inside the domain. 

Chemical Castration: International Experience and Chinese Path to Control Pedophilia Crimes  [PDF]
Jin Zhuang
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.88034
Abstract: The current penalties in China are not sufficient to effectively curb pedophilia. Chemical castration is not the corporal punishment in real sense but indicates reducing the medical treatment of the criminal’s lust by injecting anti-androgen drugs without causing perpetual harm to the criminal’s body. It includes many aspects such as penalty execution procedure & object, treatment position, and penalty execution replacement & guarantee, etc. There are characteristic regulations on it in many states of America. The drastic argument on issues including the constitutionality, fairness, effectiveness and economy of the penalty is held in the American academic circle. Chemical castration has remarkable effect in urging catamite crime, which is worth of referring to for Chinese criminal law. However, it is necessary to take precaution against the limitation in design of the specific system.
Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes: A comparative study between three metropolitan areas of Japan

ZHAO Yaolong,CUI Bingliang,MURAYAMA Yuji,

地理学报 , 2011,
Abstract: Local spatial interaction between neighborhood land-use categories (i.e. neighborhood interaction) is an important factor which affects urban land-use change patterns. Therefore, it is a key component in cellular automata (CA)-based urban geosimulation models towards the simulation and forecast of urban land-use changes. Purpose of this paper is to interpret the similarities and differences of the characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of different metropolitan areas in Japan for providing empirical materials to understand the mechanism of urban land-use changes and construct urban geosimulation models. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of three metropolitan areas in Japan, i.e. Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya, were compared using such aids as the neighborhood interaction model and similarity measure function. As a result, urban land-use in the three metropolitan areas was found to have had similar structure and patterns during the study period. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes are quite different from land-use categories, meaning that the mechanism of urban land-use changes comparatively differs among land-use categories. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction reveal the effect of spatial autocorrelation in the spatial process of urban land-use changes in the three metropolitan areas, which correspond with the characteristics of agglomeration of urban land-use allocation in Japan. Neighborhood interaction amidst urban land-use changes between the three metropolitan areas generally showed similar characteristics. The regressed neighborhood interaction coefficients in the models may represent the general characteristics of neighborhood effect on urban land-use changes in the cities of Japan. The results provide very significant materials for exploring the mechanism of urban land-use changes and the construction of universal urban geosimulation models which may be applied to any city in Japan.
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