Abstract:
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a major component of the leukocyte infiltrate of most solid tumors, and they usually exhibit a proangiogenic phenotype which facilitates tumor growth in most circumstances. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the proangiogenic properties of TAMs remain largely unclear. In the present study, we found that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) was significantly up-regulated in macrophages from tumor tissues of several solid tumors. Macrophages exposed to tumor cell line derived-culture supernatants (TSN) also expressed high levels of HIF-2α in vitro, without a requirement for hypoxia. We identified miR-17 and miR-20a as the key regulators of HIF-2α expression in TAMs, and autocrine IL-6 played an important role in mediating the expression of miR-17, miR-20a, and thereafter HIF-2α in TAMs. Furthermore, the elevated HIF-2α in TAMs stimulated transcription of a set of proangiogenic genes such as VEGFA and PDGFB, which might in turn contribute to the angiogenic process within tumors. Our data provide evidence in support of the critical role of HIF-2α in the proangiogenic activity of TAMs and also reveal a novel mechanism by which miRNAs regulate TAM functions through modulation of HIF-2α expression under non-hypoxic conditions.

Abstract:
Bryophyte species were investigated in Tangdan Copper Mine site in Dongchuan District of Kunming City,Yunnan Province.Twenty-two species belonging to 16 genera(Barbula,Gymnostomum,Didymodon,etc.) of 6 families(Pottiaceae,Bryaceae,Brachytheciaceae,Thuidiaceae,Ditrichaceae and Entodontaceae) were found,59% of which was Pottiaceae as a dominant family.Sixty-eight percent of the species lived on cupreous rocks covered with patina,while 32% grew on cupreous soil.The species were divided into short turf(68%),high turf(14%) and weft(18%).There were 7 areal types(Eastern Asia and North America,Endemic to China,Tropical Asia and Tropical Africa,Eastern Asia,Cosmopolitan,Tropical Asia,North Temperate),among which Eastern Asia was dominant.The classical "Copper Mosses" were absent.

Abstract:
In the title complex, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C7H6N2)3], the NiII ion is coordinated by two carboxylate O atoms and the N atom from a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate ligand and by three N atoms from three benzimidazole ligands to form a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network.

Abstract:
The title mononuclear complex, [Ni(C7H3NO4)(C9H10N2)3], shows a central NiII atom which is coordinated by two carboxylate O atoms and the N atom from a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate ligand and by three N atoms from different 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The crystal structure shows intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

Abstract:
The title potential antibacterial compound, C14H12N2O4·H2O, is a Schiff base which has an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond and crystallizes with one uncoordinated water molecule, which links three symmetry-related molecules through two O—H...O and one N—H...O hydrogen bond. In the crystal structure, further intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link symmetry-related molecules, forming layers parallel to the bc plane.

Abstract:
Flow behavior of gas and particles was numerically studied in a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator with tubular distributor.The distributions of instantaneous and time-averaged velocities of gas and particles phases,and particle concentration were obtained.Simulated results show that on the whole particles flowed up in the center,and down near the walls,and an inter-circulation of particles formed.The influences of jetting gas velocity and particle diameter on fluidization were analyzed.Numerical simulations indicate that the optimum spacing between air tubes is in the range of 1.5 to 1.75 in the present study.

Abstract:
We construct in the K matrix formalism concrete examples of symmetry enriched topological phases, namely intrinsically topological phases with global symmetries. We focus on the Abelian and non-chiral topological phases and demonstrate by our examples how the interplay between the global symmetry and the fusion algebra of the anyons of a topologically ordered system determines the existence of gapless edge modes protected by the symmetry and that a (quasi)-group structure can be defined among these phases. Our examples include phases that display charge fractionalization and more exotic non-local anyon exchange under global symmetry that correspond to general group extensions of the global symmetry group.

Abstract:
Casini et al raise the issue that the entanglement entropy in gauge theories is ambiguous because its definition depends on the choice of the boundary between two regions.; even a small change in the boundary could annihilate the otherwise finite topological entanglement entropy between two regions. In this article, we first show that the topological entanglement entropy in the Kitaev model which is not a true gauge theory, is free of ambiguity. Then, we give a physical interpretation, from the perspectives of what can be measured in an experiement, to the purported ambiguity of true gauge theories, where the topological entanglement arises as redundancy in counting the degrees of freedom along the boundary separating two regions. We generalize these discussions to non-Abelian gauge theories.

Abstract:
In this paper we initiate the study of holographic quantum liquids in 1+1 dimensions. Since the Landau Fermi liquid theory breaks down in 1+1 dimensions, it is of interest to see what holographic methods have to say about similar models. For theories with a gapless branch, the Luttinger conjecture states that there is an effective description of the physics in terms of a Luttinger liquid which is specified by two parameters. The theory we consider is the defect CFT arising due to a probe D3 brane in the AdS Schwarzschild planar black hole background. We turn on a fundamental string density on the worldvolume. Unlike higher dimensional defects, a persistent dissipationless zero sound mode is found. The thermodynamic aspects of these models are considered carefully and certain subtleties with boundary terms are explained which are unique to 1+1 dimensions. Spectral functions of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations are also considered and quasinormal modes are analysed. A prescription is given to compute spectral functions when there is mixing due to the worldvolume gauge field. We comment on the Luttinger conjecture in the light of our findings.

Abstract:
In this paper we would like to demonstrate how the known rules of anyon condensation motivated physically proposed by Bais \textit{et al} can be recovered by the mathematics of twist-free commutative separable Frobenius algebra (CSFA). In some simple cases, those physical rules are also sufficient conditions defining a twist-free CSFA. This allows us to make use of the generalized $ADE$ classification of CSFA's and modular invariants to classify anyon condensation, and thus characterizing all gapped domain walls and gapped boundaries of a large class of topological orders. In fact, this classification is equivalent to the classification we proposed in Ref.1.