Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
This paper investigates how political
connection and management promotion affect chances of risk-taking activities,
in order to offer theoretical support for state-owned enterprises to select
optimal managers, and to maintain and increase their company values. Using the
data of chairman of state-owned listed enterprises in Shenzhen securities market,
we find that in state-owned listed enterprises, the shorter the pyramid of
listed enterprises to ultimate shareholders is, the closer the political connection is, the more likely the chairman is to take up
risk-taking activities for promotion. While for the same pyramid, the longer
the tenure of chairman, the more chances of risk-taking activities.
Objective: Severe craniomaxillofacial injuries and craniomaxillofacial tumors can lead to craniomaxillofacial bone defects and deformities. Seriously affect the patients’ appearance and quality of life. So one-stage repair and reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial bone defects is of great significance. The current study summarizes the clinical experience of one-stage repair and reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Material and Methods: Data in one-stage repair and reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial bone defects performed on 13 patients were retrospectively analyzed out of 34 patients with craniomaxillofacial injuries or tumors who received treatment at the outpatient department between January 2002 and March 2011. Surgical indications and approaches were explored after two typical cases were detected. Results: One-stage repair and reconstruction of bone defects was suitable for patients with craniomaxillofacial injuries and excised craniomaxillofacial benign tumors. Adjacent autogenous bones and artificial materials (such as titanium plates, titanium mesh, and so on) work well for the repair of the craniomaxillofacial bone frame and restoration of facial features. Conclusions: Surgical indications should be strictly selected in one-stage repair and reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial bone defects and deformities. Furthermore, the adoption of autogenous bones and artificial materials is a good choice in restoring the craniofacial features.