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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 649 matches for " ZD Umar "
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Assessment of potential health impacts on surface water sources in Northern Nigeria
ZD Umar,A Bashir
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i2.10523
Abstract: Northern Nigeria represents the most populous region in Nigeria and adequate water supply and sanitation typically leaves a lot to be desired in the region in order to prevent water related diseases to the vulnerable communities of the region. This research work was carried out in Kano state with specific emphasis on Tomas dam which is one of the largest dams established for multipurpose use in Nigeria. The research was aimed at evaluating Physico-chemical and Bacteriological quality of Tomas Dam in Kano State. 240 water samples from 5 sampling stations within eight months were analyzed for bacteriological and physico-chemical quality. The physico-chemical parameters indicated Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Water Current Speed results were not significantly different (P>0.05), while other physico-chemical parameters analyzed varied significantly (P<0.05). The study also revealed that Dissolved Oxygen (DO), BOD, Turbidity, and Nitrates recorded higher values than WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria (FEPA) limits. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TBC) and total coliform counts (TCC) were determined using pour plate and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques. TBC and TCC were high and exceeded acceptable limits. Faecal coliforms, faecal Streptococci and Klebsiella species constituted 25% of the indicator organisms identified.The observed parameters indicated the Dam was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Variations in the weather conditions, animal and anthropogenic interferences were all directly or indirectly related to faecal contamination in the dam. Preventing indiscriminate faecal discharge close to the Dam and sufficient water treatment before consumption are of prime importance to public health as the dam was established for agricultural purposes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10523 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 125-136
Study on bacteriological quality of Kunun aya (Tigernut juice) sold at Umaru Musa Yar’adua University (UMYU) campus, Katsina
ZD Umar,A Bashir,SA Raubilu
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i2.10518
Abstract: The study was aimed at determining the Bacteriological quality of Kunun aya (Tigernut juice) which is one of the most regularly non-alcoholic drinks consumed within Umaru Musa Yar’adua University campus. Samples were collected and analyzed from different places at the University for the Enumeration of bacteria. Serial dilutions were carried out from the collected samples where a dilution factor of 10 -5 was obtained for each sample. Total aerobic bacterial counts, total coliform counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were determined from the samples using Pour Plate Technique. The results obtained shows high bacterial load as the total aerobic bacterial counts had a range of 2.2x10 4 - 1.4x10 6 cfu/ml. Total coliform counts had 8.2 x 10 2 - 6.1 x 10 4 cfu/ml while Salmonella-Shigella counts had 1.1 x 10 2 - 8.7 x 10 4 cfu/ml. The result shows high bacterial contamination of Kunun aya, which may be obtained from the poor hygienic preparation process. This could be the reason for its quick spoilage. Preserving the drink in very low temperature may reduce the chances for its early spoilage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10518 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 87-97
Bacteriological analysis of date palm fruits sold in Katsina metropolis
ZD Umar,A Bilkisu,A Bashir
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i2.10517
Abstract: Date palm is widely cultivated, distributed and consumed by various individuals. Most of the date palm fruits sold in Nigeria are either damaged or has insufficient quality for human consumption. This study was carried out to determine the bacterial load of date fruits in Katsina metropolis. Enumeration of bacteria was determined using pour plate technique. Serial dilution was carried out, where 10g of date fruits was homogenized in 90ml of diluents and used as stock solution. The bacterial counts were determined using colony forming unit per gram of the date fruit samples (cfu/g). The results obtained revealed high bacterial load in all the samples analyzed, which indicates the fruits contamination with bacteria. This may be due to unhygienic handling of the fruits from the local sellers and the nutritional contents of the fruit that may serve as good source of nutrients to bacteria. Date fruits should be packed and processed in a very hygienic condition for public health importance DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10517 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 83-86
Effects of storage conditions and storage period on nutritional and other qualities of stored yam (Dioscorea spp) tubers
ZD Osunde, BA Orhevba
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: Yam is one of the preferred staple foods in West Africa. The annual vegetative cycle of yam necessitates a long period of storage to make it available all year round. The major problems in yam tuber storage are sprouting, respiration and transpiration, which cause weight and quality losses. In this work, the effects of storage conditions and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. Storage conditions used were two traditional yam barns, one with fan to aid air circulation and the other without. A total of 216 tubers of yam (Dioscorea roundata) “Giwa” variety with 108 tubers in each barn, were stored in the barns. Parameters evaluated were temperature and relative humidity of the storage environment, signs of deterioration of the tuber such as sprouting, weight loss and rotting and some nutritional parameters (carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, crude fibre, crude fat, crude protein, ash and moisture contents). Temperature and relative humidity were measured three times a week and four times a day at 0800h, 1200h, 1600h and 2000h. The results showed that average temperature and relative humidity in the barn with fan were slightly lower than that of the barn without fan. These differences were statistically significant for April, May and June at P< 0.1. Tubers stored in the barn with fan had the least sprout weight and least weight loss. At the end of a 3-month period, the tubers in the ventilated barn showed 4.7% less weight loss compared to the barn without fan. The difference in sprout weights and weight loss between the structures was statistically significant at P≤ 0.05. Also, tubers stored in the barn with fan had the least percentage of rotten tubers (1.85% of stored tubers) compared to the tubers stored in the barn without fan (12.03%). A reduction of some of the nutritional content was also observed during the six months of storage period. From these results it can be concluded that intermittent air flow on stored yam tubers reduces sprouting, weight loss and rot development, thus reducing the overall loss in stored yam tuber. However, moisture, crude protein, carbohydrates, phosphorus and calcium contents of the tuber reduced significantly in the two barns studied.
An Appraisal of Spatial Distribution of Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria  [PDF]
Ali Ibrahim Naibbi, Umar Musa Umar
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.511003
Abstract: This paper describes a research project that has been conducted as part of the Kano Municipal waste management strategy. The aim is to quantify and to identify the existing locations of waste disposal sites by mapping their spatial distribution within the metropolitan Kano. QUICKBIRD satellite imageries; locations of existing waste disposal sites collected using Global Positioning System (GPS); and topographical map (1:5000 scale) of Kano metropolis were used to generate data for the study. The data were prepared and analysed using ArcMap 10.2.1 and Erdas Imagine 11 software to produce the spatial distribution maps for solid waste disposal sites within the metropolis. The result shows that out of the 300 existing waste disposal sites assessed, the city has fairly well-distributed waste disposal sites. Conversely, the disposal sites are more clustered in the centre of the metropolis than the outskirts. However, about 80 percent of the sites are either located very close to roads, settlements or water bodies. Also, while about 92 percent of the existing waste disposal locations are open space, only about 7 percent are containers (closed dumping sites). Correspondingly, about 89 percent are authorised dumping sites and only about 11 percent are unauthorised illegal. The study recommends that policymakers should intervene and relocate the existing unauthorized dump sites to more suitable areas.
Preparation of Semi-Solid AlSi7Mg Alloy Slurry

ZD Zhao,WM Mao,

金属学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: In this article, semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry were studied. The results showed that the semi-solid AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, 127 mm in diameter, could be prepared by using the low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring technology and this new technology could save energy and make the pouring process convenient. When the liquid AlSi7Mg alloy was poured at 650°C or 630°C, the solidified microstructure of the AlSi7Mg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, was remarkably improved when compared with that of the slurry prepared without stirring. The primary α-Al grains appeared rosette-like or spherical. When the pouring temperature was decreased, the shape of the primary α-Al grains gradually changed from dendritic-like grains to spherical grains. When the pouring temperature was appropriately increased, that is, raised to a certain superheat, the pouring processbecame easier and an ideal spherical microstructure of the AlSiTMg alloy slurry, prepared by weak electromagnetic stirring, could also be obtained. In this experiment,when the stirring power was 0.36 kW, the optimized pouring temperature parameter was 630°C. When the AISiTMg alloy slurry was prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouring temperature was 630°C. Increasing the stirring power appropriately could gain better spherical primary α-Al grains, but if the stirring power was increased to a certain value, the shape of the primary α-Al grains did not improve further. In this experiment, the optimized stirring power parameter was 0.36 kW.
stanbul Menkul K ymetler Borsas ’nda ( MKB) Sekt r Baz nda lem G ren Hisse Senetlerinin Al m-Sat m Kararlar nda En Yüksek Getirili Stratejinin Belirlenmesi(Determination of Maximum Gainful Strategy in Exchange of Stocks Traded on Sectoral Basis in Istanbul Stock Exchange)
Tuncer ?ZD?L,Cengiz YILMAZ
Y?netim ve Ekonomi , 2006,
Abstract: Today economic units supply their long-term fund demands from capital markets. Firms can obtain funds to issue stocks and bonds in stock exchanges in accordance with market conditions. Particularly going public stocks in primary market are traded in secondary market due to market conditions. Investors in these markets desire to generate earnings from movement of prices and actually it is the main objective in capital markets. In this context, investors want to obtain information about prospective price changes in order to achieve their earning objective. However many time, it is not possible to get such an information because of uncertainty and risks in markets. Individual investors settle some strategies about stock exchange by the help of their personal experiences, observations and information, with an aim to overcome this uncertainty. It is important to decide accurate time of taking and selling stocks. It is not possible to estimate accuracy of timing. The same difficulty appears in strategy process, either. In this study, adequate timing decision of individual investors in stock exchange was examined by a simulation application. Investors’ possible strategies were determined. These strategies applied the closing values of sectoral indexes defined in Istanbul Stock Exchange and advisable strategies for each sector were determined.
Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Equations for Quantum Plasmas  [PDF]
Muhammad Asif, Umar Bashir
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.312233
Abstract: Steady Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Equations of force, density and energy for quantum plasmas have been derived. These equations constitute our Steady Magnetohydrodynamic model for quantum plasmas. All the quantum effects are contained in the last term of quantum force equation and in the last three terms of quantum Energy Equation, so-called Bohm potential and may be valuable for the description of quantum phenomena like tunneling.
The Collinear Libration Points in the Elliptic R3BP with a Triaxial Primary and an Oblate Secondary  [PDF]
Jagadish Singh, Aishetu Umar
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42034

This paper examines the motion of a dust grain around a triaxial primary and an oblate companion orbiting each other in elliptic orbits about their common barycenter in the neighborhood of collinear libration points. The positions and stability of these points are found to be affected by the triaxiality and oblateness of the primaries, and by the semi-major axis and eccentricity of their orbits. The stability behavior of the collinear points however remains unchanged; they are unstable in the Lyapunov sense.

Periods, Eccentricities and Axes around L4,5 in the ER3BP under Radiating and Oblate Primaries  [PDF]
Aishetu Umar, Jagadish Singh
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44061
Abstract: In the framework of the elliptic restricted three-body problem, using a semi-analytic approach, we investigate the effects of oblateness, radiation and eccentricity of both primaries on the periodic orbits around the triangular Lagrangian points of oblate and luminous binary systems. The frequencies of the long and short orbits of the periodic motion are affected by the oblateness and radiation of both primaries, so are their eccentricities, semi-major and semi-minor axes.
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