Dynamic
monitoring of plant cover and soil erosion often uses remote sensing data,
especially for estimating the plant cover rate (vegetation coverage) by
vegetation index. However, the latter is influenced by atmospheric effects and
methods for correcting them are still imperfect and disputed. This research
supposed and practiced an indirect, fast, and operational method to conduct
atmospheric correction of images for getting comparable vegetation index values
in different times. It tries to find a variable free from atmospheric effects,
e.g., the mean vegetation coverage value of the whole study area, as a basis to
reduce atmospheric correction parameters by establishing mathematical models
and conducting simulation calculations. Using these parameters, the images can
be atmospherically corrected. And then, the vegetation index and corresponding
vegetation coverage values for all pixels, the vegetation coverage maps and
coverage grade maps for different years were calculated, i.e., the plant cover monitoring was realized. Using the vegetation
coverage grade maps and the ground slope grade map from a DEM to generate soil
erosion grade maps for different years, the soil erosion monitoring was also
realized. The results show that in the study area the vegetation coverage was
the lowest in 1976, much better in 1989, but a bit worse again in 2001. Towards
the soil erosion, it had been mitigated continuously from 1976 to 1989 and then
to 2001. It is interesting that a little decrease of vegetation coverage from
1989 to 2001 did not lead to increase of soil erosion. The reason is that the
decrease of vegetation coverage was chiefly caused by urbanization and thus
mainly occurred in very gentle terrains, where soil erosion was naturally
slight. The results clearly indicate the details of plant cover and soil
erosion change in 25 years and also offer a scientific foundation for plant
and soil conservation.

Abstract:
The software of track reconstruction of the vertex chamber of BESII-VCJULI was studied when it was transplanted from the HP-Unix platform to PC-Linux. The problems of distinct dictionary storage and precision treatment in these two different platforms were found and settled in the modified software. Then the obvious differences of the candidate track number in an event and some track parameters caused by them were reduced from 74% to 0.02% and from 5% to 0.5%, respectively. As a result, the quality of the track finding was greatly improved and the CPU time saved.

Abstract:
We investigate the delocalization and conductance quantization in finite one-dimensional chains with only off-diagonal disorder coupled to leads. It is shown that the appearence of delocalized states at the middle of the band under correlated disorder is strongly dependent upon the even-odd parity of the number of sites in the system. In samples with inversion symmetry the conductance equals $2e^{2}/h$ for odd samples, and is smaller for even parity. This result suggests that this even-odd behaviour found previously in the presence of electron correlations may be unrelated to charging effects in the sample.

Abstract:
A general Landauer-B\"uttiker-type current formula is derived, which can be applied to the ferromagnet (F)/Normal metal (N)/superconductor (S), F/N/N, N/N/S and N/N/N systems in the presence of various kinds of interactions in the central region.

Abstract:
We study the transport of electrons in a Fibonacci magnetic superlattice produced on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by parallel magnetic field stripes arranged in a Fibonacci sequence. Both the transmission coefficient and conductance exhibit self-similarity and the six-circle property. The presence of extended states yields a finite conductivity at infinite length, that may be detected as an abrupt change in the conductance as the Fermi energy is varied, much as a metal-insulator transition. This is a unique feature of transport in this new kind of structure, arising from its inherent two-dimensional nature.

Abstract:
We present a unified transport theory of hybrid structures, in which a confined normal state ($N$) sample is sandwiched between two leads each of which can be either a ferromagnet ($F$) or a superconductor ($S$) via tunnel barriers. By introducing a four-dimensional Nambu-spinor space, a general current formula is derived within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function formalism, which can be applied to various kinds of hybrid mesoscopic systems with strong correlations even in the nonequilibrium situation. Such a formula is gauge invariant. We also demonstrate analytically for some quantities, such as the difference between chemical potentials, superconductor order parameter phases and ferromagnetic magnetization orientations, that only their relative value appears explicitly in the current expression. When applied to specific structures, the formula becomes of the Meir-Wingreen-type favoring strong correlation effects, and reduces to the Landauer-B\"uttiker-type in noninteracting systems such as the double-barrier resonant structures, which we study in detail beyond the wide-band approximation.

Abstract:
A unified theory for the current through a nanoscale region of interacting electrons connected to two leads which can be either ferromagnet or superconductor is presented, yielding Meir-Wingreen-type formulas when applied to specific circumstances. In such a formulation, the requirement of gauge invariance for the current is satisfied automatically. Moreover, one can judge unambiguously what quantities can be measured in the transport experiment.

Abstract:
Located in western Inner Mongolia, the Badain Jaran Desert is the second largest desert in China and consists of a regular series of stable megadunes, among which over 70 permanent lakes exist. The unexpected lakes in desert attracted research interests on exploring the hydrological process under this particular landscape; however, a very few literatures exist on the diurnal and spatial variation of the drying front in this area, which is the main issue in the desert hydrological process to characterize the movement of water in soil. In order to understand the drying front in the Badain Jaran Desert, a field campaign was conducted by the observations of soil physical parameters and micrometeorological parameters. With the field data, the performance of a vadose zone soil water balance model, the HYDRUS, was verified and calibrated. Then, the HYDRUS was used to produce the spatial and temporal information of coupled water, water vapour and heat transport in sand to characterize the variation pattern of the drying front before, during and after the rainfall. Finally, the deepest drying front was applied to determine the effective infiltration, which is defined as the amount of soil water captured by the sand beneath the deepest drying front by infiltrating water of an incident rainfall event.

Abstract:
We considered the proposed Quantum Cable as a kind of transport spectroscopy of one-dimensional (1D) density of states (DOS) of cylindrical quantum wires. By simultaneously detecting the direct current through the cylindrical quantum wire and the leaked tunneling current into the neighboring wire at desired temperatures, one can obtain detailed information about 1D DOS and subband structure of cylindrical quantum wires.