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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40130 matches for " Z. Pan "
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Increased glutamate synaptic transmission in the nucleus raphe magnus neurons from morphine-tolerant rats
Bihua Bie, Zhizhong Z Pan
Molecular Pain , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-1-7
Abstract: Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, currently are the most effective and frequently used pain reliever for moderate to severe pain. However, long-term administration of opioids can alter the central pain-related systems and results in opioid tolerance (decreased analgesic effect of opioids) and opioid dependence (a behavioral state requiring continued opioids to avoid a series of aversive withdrawal syndromes). Opioid tolerance and dependence significantly hamper the effective treatment of chronic pain with opioid analgesics [1]. Numerous agonists and antagonists of various receptors and inhibitors of second messenger pathways have been reported to block or reduce morphine tolerance and/or dependence [2]. It has been well established that glutamate receptors are critical in the development and maintenance of opioid tolerance [3-6]. However, the underlying mechanisms by which glutamate receptors mediate opioid tolerance and dependence remain unclear. An upregulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been characterized as a typical molecular adaptation in several brain regions following chronic morphine treatment [1], but the detailed role of the cAMP pathway in analgesic tolerance to chronic opioids has yet to be demonstrated.Nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), a key medullary relay for descending pain modulation, is critically involved in opioid-induced analgesia [7]. According to their electrophysiological characters and opioid responses, NRM neurons in an in vitro preparation have been divided into two general types, primary cells that lack the μ-opioid receptor and secondary cells that contain the μ receptor [8]. Based on the observation that acute opioids inhibit GABA synaptic transmission in primary cells, we have proposed that opioids produce analgesia in the NRM by disinhibiting or activating those primary cells that send descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn and inhibit spinal pain transmission [8,9]. Several lines of evidence suggests that some NRM
Trafficking of central opioid receptors and descending pain inhibition
Bihua Bie, Zhizhong Z Pan
Molecular Pain , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-3-37
Abstract: Currently, opioids are still the most effective analgesics available in the clinical treatment of moderate and severe pain. Pharmacological and molecular cloning studies have clearly established three classic types of opioid receptors, μ (MOR), δ, and κ (KOR), which belong to the superfamily of GPCRs with seven transmembrane domains. All three opioid receptors are involved in major opioid actions, including analgesia, reward, and the development of analgesic tolerance and physical dependence [1]. At present, most clinically used opioids for analgesia are either nonselective opioid agonists or selective MOR agonists. The analgesic efficacy of currently used opioid analgesics is generally limited due to their tendency to cause analgesic tolerance, physical dependence and other undesirable side effects after prolonged and repeated use.Traditionally, DOR agonists have been regarded as very weak analgesics with minimal potential of being used clinically for pain relief although they may produce fewer undesirable side effects than MOR agonists [2]. In animal studies, the analgesic effect of DOR agonists has not been consistently clarified. In opioid na?ve animals, although activation of DOR in the spinal cord produces antinociception [3], the effect of DOR agonists applied in the supraspinal sites is inconsistent. Microinjection of DOR agonists into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in the medulla or periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the midbrain produces little or weak antinociceptive effects in normal animals [4-7]. However, a significant antinociceptive effect mediated by DOR in the NRM through its descending pain-modulating system has been reported recently in rats after repeated morphine treatment [4]. The lack of DOR analgesia in normal conditions has been largely attributed to the normally intracellular localization of DOR. Interestingly, several behavioral conditions have been found to induce DOR membrane trafficking and enhance DOR analgesia, including chronic inflammato
General neck condition for the limit shape of budding vesicles
Pan Yang,Z. C. Tu
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The shape equation and linking conditions for a vesicle with two-phase domains are derived. Without any symmetry assumption, we use the shape equation and linking conditions to prove the conjecture of the general neck condition for the limit shape of budding vesicles proposed by J\"{u}licher and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{70}, 2964 (1993); Phys. Rev. E \textbf{53}, 2670 (1996)].
Layout Decomposition for Quadruple Patterning Lithography and Beyond
Bei Yu,David Z. Pan
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: For next-generation technology nodes, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) has emerged as a key solution, e.g., triple patterning lithography (TPL) for 14/11nm, and quadruple patterning lithography (QPL) for sub-10nm. In this paper, we propose a generic and robust layout decomposition framework for QPL, which can be further extended to handle any general K-patterning lithography (K$>$4). Our framework is based on the semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation with novel coloring encoding. Meanwhile, we propose fast yet effective coloring assignment and achieve significant speedup. To our best knowledge, this is the first work on the general multiple patterning lithography layout decomposition.
Coefficient of performance at maximum χ-criterion for Feynman ratchet as a refrigerator
Shiqi Sheng,Pan Yang,Z. C. Tu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0253-6102/62/4/16
Abstract: The \chi-criterion is defined as the product of the energy conversion efficiency and the heat absorbed per-unit-time by the working substance [de Tom\'as et al., Phys. Rev. E, 85 (2012) 010104(R)]. The \chi-criterion for Feynman ratchet as a refrigerator operating between two heat baths is optimized. Asymptotic solutions of the coefficient of performance at maximum \chi-criterion for Feynman ratchet are investigated at both large and small temperature difference. An interpolation formula, which fits the numerical solution very well, is proposed. Besides, the sufficient condition for the universality of the coefficient of performance at maximum \chi is investigated.
GLOW: A global router for low-power thermal-reliable interconnect synthesis using photonic wavelength multiplexing
Duo Ding,Bei Yu,David Z. Pan
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1109/ASPDAC.2012.6165031
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the integration potential and explore the design space of low power thermal reliable on-chip interconnect synthesis featuring nanophotonics Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). With the recent advancements, it is foreseen that nanophotonics holds the promise to be employed for future on-chip data signalling due to its unique power efficiency, signal delay and huge multiplexing potential. However, there are major challenges to address before feasible on-chip integration could be reached. In this paper, we present GLOW, a hybrid global router to provide low power opto-electronic interconnect synthesis under the considerations of thermal reliability and various physical design constraints such as optical power, delay and signal quality. GLOW is evaluated with testing cases derived from ISPD07-08 global routing benchmarks. Compared with a greedy approach, GLOW demonstrates around 23%-50% of total optical power reduction, revealing great potential of on-chip WDM interconnect synthesis.
Inducible lung-specific induction of RANTES
Page Kristen,Pan Z-Z,Parkyn L,Ray A
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr-2001-68570
Evaluation of the levofloxacin release characters from a rabbit foldable capsular vitreous body
Jiang Z,Wang T,Pan B,Xie Z
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2011,
Abstract: Zhaoxin Jiang1, Ting Wang1, Biyan Pan2, Zhiyong Xie2, Peijuan Wang1, Yaqin Liu1, Qianying Gao11State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assessment, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The authors have manufactured a novel rabbit foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB). The aim of this study was to determine whether this rabbit FCVB can release levofloxacin in vitro and in vivo, and to evaluate the release characteristics. In vitro, the rabbit FCVB with levofloxacin 500 μg/mL was immersed in cups of modified Franz diffusion cells. Following this, 200 μL of liquid was aspirated at intervals from 10 minutes to 24 hours. In vivo, the FCVB with levofloxacin was implanted into the right eyes of five rabbits. After implantation, the aqueous humor was aspirated on days 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. The levofloxacin concentrations in the cups and aqueous humor samples were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The FCVB was observed under a scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the released levofloxacin was stabilized at 20 ng/mL at time points from 10 minutes to 24 hours in vitro. In vivo, levofloxacin concentrations in the aqueous humor were 132, 50, 39, 11, and 15 ng/mL on days 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56, respectively. In the FCVB capsules, 300 nm apertures were observed. These results suggest the rabbit FCVB released levofloxacin stably in vitro and sustainably in vivo. This study provides a novel combined approach, with the FCVB as a vitreous substitute and drug delivery system for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis.Keywords: drug delivery system, high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, vitreous substitute, bacterial endophthalmitis
A Contextual Item-Based Collaborative Filtering Technology  [PDF]
Xueqing Tan, Pan Pan
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2012.43013
Abstract: This paper proposes a contextual item-based collaborative filtering technology, which is based on the traditional item-based collaborative filtering technology. In the process of the recommendation, user’s important mobile contextual information are taken into account, and the technology combines with those ratings on the items in the users’ historical contextual information who are familiar with user’s current context information in order to predict that which items will be preferred by user in his or her current context. At the end, an experiment is used to prove that the technology proposed in this paper can predict user’s preference in his or her mobile environment more accurately.
The Impact of Macro Factors on the Profitability of China’s Commercial Banks in the Decade after WTO Accession  [PDF]
Qinhua Pan, Meiling Pan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29011

Profitability of China’s commercial banks has increased significantly since it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). Constantly advancing of deepening the reform and increasingly fierce of international competition make us to be concerned more about macroeconomic factors. This paper makes an empirical analysis with a panel of 10 Chinese listed banks during the period 1998- 2012 to make a study of the potential impact of external factors may bring to China’s capital market. The results confirm that macroeconomic do have a substantial influence to the earning power of commercial banks, according to which some suggestions are made at the end of the paper.

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