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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36963 matches for " Z. Ge "
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Significance tests for the wavelet power and the wavelet power spectrum
Z. Ge
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: Significance tests usually address the issue how to distinguish statistically significant results from those due to pure randomness when only one sample of the population is studied. This issue is also important when the results obtained using the wavelet analysis are to be interpreted. Torrence and Compo (1998) is one of the earliest works that has systematically discussed this problem. Their results, however, were based on Monte Carlo simulations, and hence, failed to unveil many interesting and important properties of the wavelet analysis. In the present work, the sampling distributions of the wavelet power and power spectrum of a Gaussian White Noise (GWN) were derived in a rigorous statistical framework, through which the significance tests for these two fundamental quantities in the wavelet analysis were established. It was found that the results given by Torrence and Compo (1998) are numerically accurate when adjusted by a factor of the sampling period, while some of their statements require reassessment. More importantly, the sampling distribution of the wavelet power spectrum of a GWN was found to be highly dependent on the local covariance structure of the wavelets, a fact that makes the significance levels intimately related to the specific wavelet family. In addition to simulated signals, the significance tests developed in this work were demonstrated on an actual wave elevation time series observed from a buoy on Lake Michigan. In this simple application in geophysics, we showed how proper significance tests helped to sort out physically meaningful peaks from those created by random noise. The derivations in the present work can be readily extended to other wavelet-based quantities or analyses using other wavelet families.
Significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and wavelet linear coherence
Z. Ge
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: This work attempts to develop significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence as a follow-up study on Ge (2007). Conventional approaches that are used by Torrence and Compo (1998) based on stationary background noise time series were used here in estimating the sampling distributions of the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence. The sampling distributions are then used for establishing significance levels for these two wavelet-based quantities. In addition to these two wavelet quantities, properties of the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum of, or the phase difference between, two Gaussian white noise series are discussed. It is found that the tangent of the principal part of the phase angle approximately has a standard Cauchy distribution and the phase angle is uniformly distributed, which makes it impossible to establish significance levels for the phase angle. The simulated signals clearly show that, when there is no linear relation between the two analysed signals, the phase angle disperses into the entire range of [ π,π] with fairly high probabilities for values close to ±π to occur. Conversely, when linear relations are present, the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum settles around an associated value with considerably reduced fluctuations. When two signals are linearly coupled, their wavelet linear coherence will attain values close to one. The significance test of the wavelet linear coherence can therefore be used to complement the inspection of the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum. The developed significance tests are also applied to actual data sets, simultaneously recorded wind speed and wave elevation series measured from a NOAA buoy on Lake Michigan. Significance levels of the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence between the winds and the waves reasonably separated meaningful peaks from those generated by randomness in the data set. As with simulated signals, nearly constant phase angles of the wavelet cross spectrum are found to coincide with large values in the wavelet linear coherence between the winds and the waves. Not limited to geophysics, the significance tests developed in the present work can also be applied to many other quantitative studies using the continuous wavelet transform.
Corrigendum to "Significance tests for the wavelet power and the wavelet power spectrum" published in Ann. Geophys., 25, 2259–2269, 2007
Z. Ge
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2013,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Corrigendum to "Significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and wavelet linear coherence" published in Ann. Geophys., 26, 3819–3829, 2008
Z. Ge
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2013,
Abstract: No abstract available.
QUESTIONING ‘INCLUSIVITY’ OF PUBLIC SPACES IN POST-INDUSTRIAL CITIES:
Z. Müge AKKAR
Middle East Technical University Journal of the Faculty of Architecture , 2005,
Abstract:
Long-term wave growth and its linear and nonlinear interactions with wind fluctuations
Z. Ge,P. C. Liu
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: Following Ge and Liu (2007), the simultaneously recorded time series of wave elevation and wind velocity are examined for long-term (on Lavrenov's τ4-scale or 3 to 6 h) linear and nonlinear interactions between the wind fluctuations and the wave field. Over such long times the detected interaction patterns should reveal general characteristics for the wave growth process. The time series are divided into three episodes, each approximately 1.33 h long, to represent three sequential stages of wave growth. The classic Fourier-domain spectral and bispectral analyses are used to identify the linear and quadratic interactions between the waves and the wind fluctuations as well as between different components of the wave field. The results show clearly that as the wave field grows the linear interaction becomes enhanced and covers wider range of frequencies. Two different wave-induced components of the wind fluctuations are identified. These components, one at around 0.4 Hz and the other at around 0.15 to 0.2 Hz, are generated and supported by both linear and quadratic wind-wave interactions probably through the distortions of the waves to the wind field. The fact that the higher-frequency wave-induced component always stays with the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum around 0.4 Hz and the lower-frequency one tends to move with the downshifting of the primary peak of the wave spectrum defines the partition of the primary peak and the equilibrium range of the wave spectrum, a characteristic that could not be revealed by short-time wavelet-based analyses in Ge and Liu (2007). Furthermore, these two wave-induced peaks of the wind spectrum appear to have different patterns of feedback to the wave field. The quadratic wave-wave interactions also are assessed using the auto-bispectrum and are found to be especially active during the first and the third episodes. Such directly detected wind-wave interactions, both linear and nonlinear, may complement the existing theoretical and numerical models, and can be used for future model development and validation.
A time-localized response of wave growth process under turbulent winds
Z. Ge,P. C. Liu
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2007,
Abstract: Very short time series (with lengths of approximately 40 s or 5~7 wave periods) of wind velocity fluctuations and wave elevation were recorded simultaneously and investigated using the wavelet bispectral analysis. Rapid changes in the wave and wind spectra were detected, which were found to be intimately related to significant energy transfers through transient quadratic wind-wave and wave-wave interactions. A possible pattern of energy exchange between the wind and wave fields was further deduced. In particular, the generation and variation of the strong wave-induced perturbation velocity in the wind can be explained by the strengthening and diminishing of the associated quadratic interactions, which cannot be unveiled by linear theories. On small time scales, the wave-wave quadratic interactions were as active and effective in transferring energy as the wind-wave interactions. The results also showed that the wind turbulence was occasionally effective in transferring energy between the wind and the wave fields, so that the background turbulence in the wind cannot be completely neglected. Although these effects are all possibly significant over short times, the time-localized growth of the wave spectrum may not considerably affect the long-term process of wave development.
HOW TO SHAPE UP CONSERVATION-LED REGENERATION INITIATIVES REGARDING COMMUNITY NEEDS?
Z. Müge AKKAR ERCAN
Middle East Technical University Journal of the Faculty of Architecture , 2010,
Abstract:
Detailed Micro Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Doped Silicon Thin Film Layers and Its Feasibility for Heterojunction Silicon Wafer Solar Cells  [PDF]
Z. P. Ling, J. Ge, R. Stangl, A. G. Aberle, T. Mueller
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2013.15A001
Abstract:

Hydrogenated doped silicon thin films deposited using RF (13.56 MHz) PECVD were studied in detail using micro Raman spectroscopy to investigate the impact of doping gas flow, film thickness, and substrate type on the film characteristics. In particular, by deconvoluting the micro Raman spectra into amorphous and crystalline components, qualitative and quantitative information such as bond angle disorder, bond length, film stress, and film crystallinity can be determined. By selecting the optimum doped silicon thin film deposition conditions, and combining our p-doped and n-doped silicon thin films in different heterojunction structures, we demonstrate both (i) an efficient field effect passivation and (ii) further improvement to c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface defect density with observed improvement in implied open-circuit voltage VOC and minority carrier lifetimes across all injections levels of interest. In particular, the heterojunction structure (a-Si:H(p)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(n)/a-Si:H(i)/a-Si:H(p)) demonstrates a minority carrier lifetime of 2.4 ms at an injection level of 1015 cm-3, and a high implied open-circuit voltage of 725 mV. Simulation studies reveal a strong dependence of the interface defect density Dit on the heterojunction silicon wafer solar cell performance, affected by the deposition conditions of the overlying doped silicon thin film layers. Using our films, and a fitted Dit of 5 × 1010 cm-2·eV-1

Architecture Design for Integrated Wide Area Protection and Control Systems  [PDF]
Z. Q. Bo, Q. P. Wang, Lin Wang, Fengqun Zhou, Shengming Ge, B. M. Zhang
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.34055
Abstract:

This paper firstly reviews the recent development in power system protection and control, with special attention paid to the wide-area and integrated protection, in order to look into future development of integration of protection and control for smart grids. This paper mainly reports on the development of integrated wide area protection and control for power systems. The concept of integrated wide area protection and control is introduced, in which a hierarchical protection and control system provides the protection and control of wide area or regional power substations/ plants and their associated power network. The system is mainly divided into three levels, the local, the substation/plant and the wide area/regional protection and control. The integrated functions at each level are described in details with an aim to develop an optimal coordination mechanism between the levels. One of the core elements in the system is the synchronised wide area communication network between the substations and the protection and control system, in which latest communication technology is employed. Another important player in the system is the wide area synchronized protection and control information platform, which not only enables the fusion three line of defence for power system protection and control, but also provides a perfect tool for the application of cloud computing to substations and power networks.

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