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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 176775 matches for " Z. -T. Lu "
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The Afterglow of GRB 990123 and a Dense Medium
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312127
Abstract: Recent observations show that the temporal decay of the R-band afterglow from GRB 990123 steepened about 2.5 days after the burst. We here propose a possible explanation for such a steepening: a shock expanding in a dense medium has undergone the transition from a relativistic phase to a nonrelativistic phase. We find that this model is consistent with the observations if the medium density is about $3\times 10^6 {\rm cm}^{-3}$. By fitting our model to the observed optical and X-ray afterglow quantitatively, we further infer the electron and magnetic energy fractions of the shocked medium and find these two parameters are about 0.1 and $2\times 10^{-8}$ respectively. The former parameter is near the equipartition value while the latter is about six orders of magnitude smaller than inferred from the GRB 970508 afterglow. We also discuss possibilities that the dense medium can be produced.
Gamma-Ray Bursts and Afterglows from Rotating Strange Stars and Neutron Stars
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.4301
Abstract: We here discuss a new model of $\gamma$-ray bursts (GRBs) based on differentially rotating strange stars. Strange stars in this model and differentially rotating neutron stars in the Klu\'zniak-Ruderman model can produce extremely relativistic, variable fireballs required by GRBs and then become millisecond pulsars. The effect of such pulsars on expansion of the postburst fireballs through magnetic dipole radiation is studied. We show that these two models can explain naturally not only various features of GRBs but also light curves of afterglows.
Gamma-ray burst afterglows and evolution of postburst fireballs with energy injection from strongly magnetic millisecond pulsars
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Millisecond pulsars with strong magnetic fields may be formed through several processes, e.g. accretion-induced collapse of magnetized white dwarfs, merger of two neutron stars. During the birth of such a pulsar, an initial fireball available for a gamma-ray burst (GRB) may occur. We here study evolution of a postburst relativistic fireball with energy injection from the pulsar through magnetic dipole radiation, and find that the magnitude of the optical afterglow from this fireball first decreases with time, subsequently flattens, and finally declines again. This may provide a natural explanation for the behavior of the lightcurve of the afterglow of GRB970228 if this burst resulted from the birth of a strongly magnetic millisecond pulsar.
Spectrum and Duration of Delayed MeV-GeV Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts in Cosmic Background Radiation Fields
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/343848
Abstract: We generally analyze prompt high-energy emission above a few hundreds of GeV due to synchrotron self-Compton scattering in internal shocks. However, such photons cannot be detected because they may collide with cosmic infrared background photons, leading to electron/positron pair production. Inverse-Compton scattering of the resulting electron/positron pairs off cosmic microwave background photons will produce delayed MeV-GeV emission, which may be much stronger than a typical high-energy afterglow in the external shock model. We expand on the Cheng & Cheng model by deriving the emission spectrum and duration in the standard fireball shock model. A typical duration of the emission is ~ 10^3 seconds, and the time-integrated scattered photon spectrum is nu^{-(p+6)/4}, where p is the index of the electron energy distribution behind internal shocks. This is slightly harder than the synchrotron photon spectrum, nu^{-(p+2)/2}. The lower energy property of the scattered photon spectrum is dependent on the spectral energy distribution of the cosmic infrared background radiation. Therefore, future observations on such delayed MeV-GeV emission and the higher-energy spectral cutoff by the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) would provide a probe of the cosmic infrared background radiation.
Could the Unusual Optical Afterglow of GRB 000301c Arise from a Non-relativistic Shock with Energy Injection?
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010062
Abstract: Recent observations on the GRB 000301c afterglow show that three breaks appear in the R-band light curve, and in particular the decay slope at late times is as steep as -3.0. This unusual afterglow is clearly inconsistent with the standard afterglow shock model. Here we propose a non-standard model for the unusual R-band afterglow of GRB 000301c. In this model, an ultra-relativistic shock in a dense medium ("dirty environment")rapidly evolved to the non-relativistic phase in initial 1 day. During such a phase, the shock happened to be caught up with by two energetic shells ejected from the central engine at two different times, and the shock was refreshed, leading to two flattenings of the light curve. After each interaction between the shock and shell, the afterglow decayed as $\propto t^{-3.0}$ if the electron distribution index of the shocked medium, $p\approx 3.4$, derived from the optical spectrum. Therefore, this model can provide an excellent explanation for the flattening and steepening features of the GRB 000301c optical afterglow light curve. We further point out that the energy injection shells ejected from the central engine at later times may be material shells (e.g., in the massive star progenitor models related to black holes) or radiation shells (e.g., in the millisecond pulsar progenitor models).
Neutrino Afterglows and Progenitors of Gamma-Ray Bursts
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/320056
Abstract: Currently popular models for progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the mergers of compact objects and the explosions of massive stars. These two cases have distinctive environments for GRBs: compact object mergers occur in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the explosions of massive stars occur in the preburst stellar wind. We here discuss neutrino afterglows from reverse shocks as a result of the interaction of relativistic fireballs with their surrounding wind matter. After comparing with the analytical result of Waxman & Bahcall (2000) for the homogeneous ISM case, we find that the differential spectrum of neutrinos with energy from $\sim 3\times 10^{15}$ to $\sim 3\times 10^{17}$ eV in the wind case is softer by one power of the energy than in the ISM case. Furthermore, the expected flux of upward moving muons produced by neutrino interactions below a detector on the surface of the Earth in the wind case is $\sim 5$ events per year per km$^2$, which is about one order of magnitude larger than in the ISM case. In addition, these properties are independent of whether the fireballs are isotropic or beamed. Therefore, neutrino afterglows, if detected, may provide a way of distinguishing between GRB progenitor models based on the differential spectra of neutrinos and their event rates in a detector.
Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows: Effects of Radiative Corrections and Nonuniformity of the Surrounding Medium
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01681.x
Abstract: The afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is commonly thought to be due to continuous deceleration of a relativistically expanding fireball in the surrounding medium. Assuming that the expansion of the fireball is adiabatic and that the density of the medium is a power-law function of shock radius, viz., $n_{ext}\propto R^{-k}$, we analytically study the effects of the first-order radiative correction and the nonuniformity of the medium on a GRB afterglow. We first derive a new relation among the observed time, the shock radius and the fireball's Lorentz factor: $t_\oplus=R/4(4-k)\gamma^2c$, and also derive a new relation among the comoving time, the shock radius and the fireball's Lorentz factor: $t_{co}=2R/(5-k)\gamma c$. We next study the evolution of the fireball by using the analytic solution of Blandford and McKee (1976). The radiation losses may not significantly influence this evolution. We further derive new scaling laws both between the X-ray flux and observed time and between the optical flux and observed time. We use these scaling laws to discuss the afterglows of GRB 970228 and GRB 970616, and find that if the spectral index of the electron distribution is $p=2.5$, implied from the spectra of GRBs, the X-ray afterglow of GRB970616 is well fitted by assuming $k=2$.
Environment and Energy Injection Effects in GRB Afterglows
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/309044
Abstract: In a recent paper (Dai & Lu 1999), we have proposed a simple model in which the steepening in the light curve of the R-band afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 990123 is caused by the adiabatic shock which has evolved from an ultrarelativistic phase to a nonrelativistic phase in a dense medium. We find that such a model is quite consistent with observations if the medium density is about $3\times 10^6 {\rm cm}^{-3}$. Here we discuss this model in more details. In particular, we investigate the effects of synchrotron self absorption and energy injection. A shock in a dense medium becomes nonrelativistic rapidly after a short relativistic phase. The afterglow from the shock at the nonrelativistic stage decays more rapidly than at the relativistic stage. Since some models for GRB energy sources predict that a strongly magnetic millisecond pulsar may be born during the formation of GRB, we discuss the effect of such a pulsar on the evolution of the nonrelativistic shock through magnetic dipole radiation. We find that after the energy which the shock obtains from the pulsar is much more than the initial energy of the shock, the afterglow decay will flatten significantly. When the pulsar energy input effect disappears, the decay will steepen again. These features are in excellent agreement with the afterglows of GRB 980519, GRB 990510 and GRB 980326. Furthermore, our model fits very well all the observational data of GRB 980519 including the last two detections.
Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Blast Waves in a Density-Jump Medium and Their Emission Signature
Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/339418
Abstract: We analyze in detail the hydrodynamics and afterglow emission of an ultrarelativistic blast wave when it expands in a density-jump medium. Such a medium is likely to appear in the vicinity of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with massive stars. The interaction of the blast wave with this medium is described through a reverse shock and a forward shock. We show that the reverse shock is initially relativistic if the factor of a density jump ($\alpha$) is much larger than 21, and Newtonian if $1<\alpha\ll 21$. We also calculate light curves of the afterglow emission during the interaction if the reverse shock is relativistic, and find that the optical flux density initially decays abruptly, then rises rapidly, and finally fades based on a power-law, which could be followed by an abrupt decay when the reverse shock has just crossed the originally swept-up matter. Therefore, one property of an afterglow occurring in a large-density-jump medium is an abrupt drop followed by a bump in the light curve and thus provides a probe of circumburst environments. In addition, this property could not only account for the optical afterglows of GRB 970508 and GRB 000301C but also explain the X-ray afterglow of GRB 981226.
Long-term Neutrino Afterglows from Gamma-Ray Bursts
Z. Li,Z. G. Dai,T. Lu
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021397
Abstract: It is widely believed that multiwavelength afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from relativistic blast waves. We here show that in such blast waves, a significant fraction of the energy of shock-accelerated protons would be lost due to pion production by interactions with afterglow photons. This could lead to long-term production of $10^{16}$--$10^{18}$ eV neutrinos and sub-TeV $\gamma$-rays that accompany with usual afterglows, provided that the protons are accelerated to $10^{19}$ eV in the blast waves.
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