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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31130 matches for " Z Worku "
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A survival analysis of South African children under the age of five years
Z Worku
Health SA Gesondheid , 2011,
Abstract: The South African Demographic Health Survey data set (SADHS) of 2003 contains massive individual-level information on South African children under the age of five years selected from a random sample of 7756 households. The data set contains data on socio-economic, demographic, health-related and sanitary variables gathered by using multistage cluster sampling. The objective of the study was to identify key predictors of mortality amongst children under the age of five years. Logistic regression analysis and Cox regression were used for data analysis. Under-five mortality was significantly influenced by three predictor variables (breastfeeding, marital status, and ownership of a flush toilet). The hazard ratio of the variable ‘breastfeeding’ was 3.09 with P = 0.000 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of (1.899, 5.033). The hazard ratio of the variable ‘toilet’ was 2.35 with P = 0.016 and 95% confidence interval of (1.172, 4.707). The hazard ratio of the variable ‘marital status’ was 1.74 with P = 0.035 and 95% confidence interval of (1.041, 2.912). Adjustment was factored in for the mother’s level of education and wealth index. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Demografiese en Gesondheidsopname-datastel (The South African Demographic Health Survey data set [SADHS]) van 2003 bevat ‘n enorme hoeveelheid individuele-vlak inligting rakende kinders onder vyf jaar uit 7756 huishoudings in Suid-Afrika. Die datastel bevat inligting rakende sosio-ekonomiese, demografiese, en gesondheidsverwante veranderlikes, en sanitêre-veranderlikes, is versamel deur gebruik te maak van multistadiatrosanalise. Die oogmerk met die studie was die identifisering van sleutelpredikatore ten opsigte van sterftes van kinders onder die ouderdom van vyf jaar. Logistieke-opnameregressie analise en Cox-regressie is gebruik om die data te analiseer. Onder vyf-sterftes word beduidend be nvloed deur drie predikatorveranderlikes (duurte van borsvoeding, huwelikstatus en toegang tot ‘n spoeltoilet). Die risikoverhouding van die borsvoeding-veranderlike was 3.09 met P = 0.000 en ‘n 95% sekerheidsinterval van (1.899, 5.033). Die risikoverhouding van die toiletveranderlike was 2.35 met P = 0.006 en 95% sekerheidsinterval van (1.172, 4.707). Die risikoverhouding van die huwelikstatus-veranderlike was 1.74 met P = 0.035 en 95% sekerheidsinterval van (1.041, 2.912). Aanpassings is gemaak vir die opvoedingsvlak van die moeder asook die welgesteldheidsindeks.
Prevalence of childhood illness and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: A descriptive community based cross sectional study  [PDF]
Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32020

Introduction: In Ethiopia, even though there are great achievements in decreasing infant and child mortality from year 2000 to 2011, still children are suffering from diarrheal diseases, respiratory problems and malnutrition. This study was done to determine the prevalence of illnesses among under-five children and mothers’/caregivers’ care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 415 mothers/caregivers from April 15 to May 15, 2011. Three kebeles (the smallest administrative unit) from Bahir Dar were selected randomly. The sample was proportionally distributed to the selected kebeles according to their population size. To be eligible to participate in the study, mothers had to live in households that had children under five years of age. These households were selected by systematic sampling method. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed in their homes using a structured questionnaire that had been pre-tested. The collected data were analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.0. Result and Conclusions: The overall two weeks prevalence of childhood illness that had one or more symptoms of disease was 110 (26.5%). The prevalence of the most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) and others 11.3%, 10%, 6.3% and 4.6% among children of under five years respectively. Eighty (72.7%) of mothers sought treatment from health care facilities for sick children. The main reasons for not seeking treatment from health care facilities as reported by mothers/caregivers were, 53.3% Illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not see any benefit for such childhood illness. Hence there is a need for designing a tailored health message for mother/ caregivers about preventable childhood illness and treatment seeking by the local health extension workers and program planners.

Analysis of Factors That Affect the Long-Term Survival of Small Businesses in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2013.14008

The paper is based on a 5-year follow-up study (2007 to 2012) of a random sample of 349 small business enterprises that operate in and around the city of Pretoria in South Africa. Data weregathered from each of the businesses on socio economic factors that were known to affect the long-term survival of small businesses. The objective of the study was to identify and quantify key predictors of viability and long-term survival. Pearson’s chi-square tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were used for screening of variables, and for estimating odds ratios and hazard ratios of key predictors of viability and long-term survival. The study found that 188 of the 349 businesses that took part in the study (54%) were not viable, and that the long-term survival and viability of small businesses were adversely affected by lack of entrepreneurial skills, lack of supervisory support to newly established businesses, and inability to operators running newly established businesses to acquire relevant vocational skills.

Differential Factors of Contraceptive Use and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with Ages 15 to 49 in Pretoria, South Africa  [PDF]
Zeleke Worku
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2014.21004

Challenges of teenage pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy constitute a major public health problem in South African women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. This is a 6-year long study that was conducted in Pretoria, South Africa in order to identify factors that affect utilization of modern contraceptives and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of the childbearing age of 15 to 49 years. Data analysis was conducted by using two-by-two Pearson’s chisquare tests of associations, binary logistic regression analysis, survival analysis, and multilevel analysis. The study showed that the percentage of women who regularly used modern family planning methods such as condoms, pills, injections, intra-uterine devices and sterilization was 41.74%. The average ages of women at first sex and pregnancy were 18.72 and 19.36 years respectively. Adverse outcomes of pregnancy occurred in 12.19% of women. Based on Odds Ratios (OR) estimated from binary logistic regression analysis, utilization of contraceptives was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, level of support from sexual partner, and young age at first pregnancy. Based on Hazard Ratios (HR) estimated from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model, the occurrence of adverse outcomes of pregnancy was significantly influenced by easy access to family planning services, unwanted pregnancy, and young age at first pregnancy. Women who experienced adverse outcomes of pregnancy were characterized by poor utilization of reproductive health and modern family planning services. There was a significant difference among the 20 health service delivery wards and 11 health service facilities in which reproductive health services were delivered to women with regards to the quality of service delivery.

Maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery services, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Worku Awoke, Kenie Seleshi
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56137

Introduction: Timely referrals and access to appropriate health care had a great impact on reduction to maternal deaths and disabilities. Maternal delay is one of the contributing factors for high maternal mortality in developing countries. Maternal delays were categorized into three levels: delay in making the decision for seeking care, delay in arrival at a health facility, and delay in receiving adequate treatment. They have been named first, second, and third delay maternal delays; respectively. This study was aimed at assessing maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery service sin Bahir Dar, North-Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on a sample of 422 women attending at a public health facility for delivery services. The sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula and the study participants were selected by using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested, standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: Data was collected from 410 laboring mothers. First delay, 155 (37.8%) of mothers was delayed in decision making for seeking care from the public health facility and the mean delay was 8 hours. Delay in seeking emergency obstetric care [EOC] was about seven fold among illiterate mothers (AOR, 6.71; 95%CI, 3.66 -12.29) than literate mothers; the odds of delay for EOC were three times more likely among mother were unable to make decisions by their own (AOR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.25 -7.20) than those mothers who made the decisions of their own. Unemployed mothers were 4 times more likely to have the maternal delay in seeking EOC (AOR, 3.94; 95%CI, 2.36 -6.57) than employed mothers. Second delay, 130 (31.7%) of mothers had transportation problems in reaching health care facilities. Predictors in the first maternal delay were also the major

Utilization of Youth Reproductive Health Services and Associated Factors among High School Students in Bahir Dar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Meskerem Abebe, Worku Awoke
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42012
Abstract: Introduction: Young people in Ethiopia face greater reproductive health risks than adults. Despite efforts that were made on youth to utilize reproductive health service, studies show that there is little information about the extent to which youth utilize available health services. For the proper planning of appropriate health services for youth, it is crucial to have knowledge on the pattern of their use and its associated factors. So this study was conducted from June to September 2013 to assess utilization of youth reproductive health and its associated factors among high school students in Bahir Dar town, Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2013. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among High school student from June to September 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the total of 818 study participants. Data were collected by means of a pretested standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated using binary logistic regression; p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The study indicated that among 818 students, 480(58.7%) were females. The data indicates that, 32% of youth utilized youth reproductive health service. Barriers in utilizing reproductive health services, for 31% of the students were due to inconvenience hours and 28.5% were due to fear of being seen by parents or people whom they know. Among socio-demographic predictors, age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services. Students with age 20-24 were 2.31 times more likely to utilize reproductive health service than age15-19 (AOR = 2.31, CI 95% (1.01, 5.28)). Similarly, students who had reproductive health problems were 1.54 times more likely to utilize reproductive health services than students who had no reproductive illness. Conclusions: The majority of youth were not utilizing reproductive health services. Age and reproductive health problems showed a significant association with utilization of youth reproductive health services.

Follow-Up Profile and Outcome of Preterms Managed with Kangaroo Mother Care  [PDF]
Wubishet Lakew, Bogale Worku
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.42020

Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is effective in preventing hypothermia, establishing breastfeeding, and reducing nosocomial infection in preterm babies in resource-limited areas. Relatively little is known about long-term morbidity and mortality outcomes among Ethiopian infants managed with KMC. Aims: To describe the follow up profiles and outcome of infants managed with KMC and discharged alive. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study examined outcomes among infants who were 1) managed by KMC at Black Lion Hospital, 2) discharged alive, and 3) available for follow-up. Structured, pretested questionnaires were administered to mothers. Results: Of the 110 infants included in the study, 9.1% died over the study period and 60% of the deaths occurred at home. Mortality was 100% in those babies with mothers aged less than 18 years. Thirty five percent of the deaths occurred in those from rural location. Common medical problems identified in study subjects were respiratory infections (10%), gastroenteritis (7%), rickets (7%), and anemia (6%). About 20% of infants were readmitted to hospital at least once. KMC initiation within one week was not found to be significantly associated with survival, but continued KMC after discharge significantly decreased mortality in our sample. Conclusion: Frequent follow up is very important especially those with teenage mothers and coming from a rural location. Follow up should be frequent in the first 2 months after discharge. Further research is needed to explore the determinants of mortality and morbidity after hospital discharge.

Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia
A Worku
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception (EC) may significantly reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students in Arba Minch town. Method: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted from March 1st to 5th 2010 among 407 female students that were selected by using a stratified sampling technique. Result: One hundred seventy three (42.5%) of the respondents said that they heard about emergency contraceptive. Of those who mentioned pills as an emergency contraceptive method, 26.4% correctly identified 72 hours as the time limit for use of the method. The summary index for knowledge disclosed that 21.9% had good knowledge about EC. Though 50% of students had positive attitude towards EC, 11 (2.7%) of the total students had used emergency contraception. EC use was significantly higher among students who were married and among students who have good knowledge on EC, (P<0.027, P< 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: The study showed that knowledge of emergency contraception among female students is low and the method is still underused. Therefore, there is a need to expand IEC about RH and regular methods in general and EC in particular at college level. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(3):176-183]
Maize-Tef relay intercropping as affected by maize planting pattern and leaf removal in Southern Ethiopia
Walelign Worku
African Crop Science Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Maize-tef (Eragrostis tef (Zuc.) Trotter) relay intercropping is practiced in parts of southern Ethiopia. However, the impacts of maize (Zea mayi L.) planting pattern and leaf stripping by farmers are not yet understood. The efficiency of maize-tef relay intercropping was assessed under different combinations of maize planting pattern and leaf removal. Planting pattern included broadcasting, 60 cm x 37.5 cm, 75 cm x 30 cm, and 100 cm x 22.5 cm, while leaf removal consisted of no leaf removal, leaf removal below the ear, and leaf removal below the ear plus two leaves removal at ten days interval. Tef was sown by broadcasting under the standing maize crop about 35 days from maize silking. Broadcasting and narrow inter-row maize spacing significantly (P<0.05) reduced grain yields of both maize and tef. Maize leaf removal below the ear improved tef grain yield without reducing maize yield significantly. Additional leaf removal above the ear significantly (P<0.05) improved tef straw yield but not grain yield. Leaf removal was accompanied by shortening of days to maturity of maize and tef. Improved performance of tef due to wider inter-row spacing and defoliation was associated with increased vigour and density. Land equivalent ratio values ranged up to 1.3, which indicated an acceptable level of efficiency for the cropping system.
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