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T-Helper Cytokine Patterns and Related Antibodies in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Z Etaati,R Moazzami Godarzi,F Kalhori,SA Sobhani
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders such as DM I, DM II, secondary causes of DM and gestational diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemic phonotype. The etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus is unknown. Recent studies address the chronic activity of immune system against infections (not autoimmunity) as an important cause of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to compare T-helper cells 1 and 2 cytokines and associated antibodies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 45 female patients with GDM and 45 healthy pregnant women in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2008- 2009. The exclusion criteria were presence of any infectious diseases or autoimmune disorders such as SLE or RA. Present and past medical histories were taken from the participants thorough physical examination. Blood samples (10 mL) were drawn and sent to laboratory for measuring serum IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF 1), and interferon-gamma (IFN ) measurements. T-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients with GDM and healthy pregnant women was 32.5 and 27.9 yrs, respectively. T-helper 1 and 2 associated antibodies and cytokines had no significant differences between the case and control groups. Conclusion: The changes in T-helper 1 and 2 associated antibodies and cytokines are not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and could not be considered as a predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus.
Optimization of Supply Chain Planning with Considering Defective Rates of Products in Each Echelon  [PDF]
Behin Elahi, Yaser Pakzad-Jafarabadi, Leila Etaati, Seyed-Mohammad Seyedhosseini
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2011.23022
Abstract: Supply Chain Planning has recently received considerable attention in both academia and industry. The major targets of supply chain planning are to reduce production costs, risks, delays and maximize or improve profit, quality of product, customer service which result in increased competitiveness, more customer satisfaction and portability. In this study, a new bi-objective mathematical modeling for a four-echelon supply chain, consisting multi-supplier, assembler, distribution center and retailer, with considering the defective rates of products is proposed. Then, fuzzy compromise programming method is applied to solve the non-linear mixed-integer bi-objective model. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate application of the proposed algorithm and the efficacy and efficiency of that are verified through this section. It has been shown that such an approach can significantly help the managers to decide properly toward economic supply chain planning.
Calibration constant of a silver activation counter used with plasma focus devices
GR Etaati,R Amrollahi,V Doostmohammadi
Iranian Journal of Physics Research , 2010,
Abstract: The silver activation counters are commonly used for pulsed-neutron yield measurements especially in plasma focus devices. The counter normally consists of a Geiger-Muller tube along with silver foils and polyethylene (as a moderator), which is calibrated against an Am-Be radioisotope neutron source. The neutrons, after being slowed-down in the polyethylene, activate the silver foils. By measuring the foil activity with a Geiger-Muller counter, the neutron yield is determined. In the present paper, the activation counter’s calibration constant calculation using the MCNP4C code is explained. The calculated calibration constant is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Using Fuzzy Group Analytical Network Process and ISO 9126 Quality Model in Software Selection: A case study in E-Learning Systems
Leila Etaati,Soheil Sadi-Nezhad,Ahmad Makue
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: ISO 9126 quality model is an assessment tool for determining software quality which has main attributes and sub attributes. In addition, there are some interrelations between ISO 9126 quality factors that must be considered during assessment. In this study, we present a Fuzzy Group Analytical Network Process (FGANP) model for evaluating software packages in which some dependencies between criteria are considered. This ANP model is based on the criteria and sub-criteria which were introduced by previous researchers. Also, interrelations between the factors are considered from their suggestions. Therefore, for deriving preference ratio among decision makers and to reach a global argument among them, we use Group Fuzzy Preference Programming (GFPP). Finally, we show the general assessment techniques and some obtained results using our model to evaluate the three existing E-learning software which are employed in some universities.
The association between iron status and some immunological factors in the pregnancy
Seyed Alireza Sobhani,Zahra Etaati,Sepideh Mirani,Paknoosh Saberi
Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common problem in many developing countries. It is still considered the most common nutrition deficiency worldwide. Apart from its direct hematologic importance, IDA affects cellular and humoral immunity and predisposes the host to infections (1).Pregnant women are highly prone to IDA. Controversial results are reported in studies targeting this group of patients. Tang et al showed a direct association between hemoglobin concentration and the count of CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes, serum levels of IL-2 and IgG, and an inverse association with susceptibility to infection (2). Ironically, Leush et al reported an increase in IgM and IgG in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in women with IDA (3).With regard to controversial results and the scarcity of studies focusing on pregnant women, we aimed to enlighten the relation between iron status and some immunological factors include some component of complement system, IgA, IgM, IgG subclasses of immunoglobulins and pro-inflammatory cytokines during the third trimester of pregnancy.In a descriptive-analytic study participants were recruited using convenient sampling from the women in the third trimester of pregnancyCorresponding author:Nadereh Naderi, Faculty of Medicine, First of Nabovat minicity, opposite of Workers Welfare Community, First of Imam Hossein Blv., Bandarabbas, Iran.Email: msbhnadereh@yahoo.comreferred to the labor room of gynecology and obstetrics ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Patients with signs and symptoms of thalassemia, infectious diseases or autoimmune diseases were excluded.IDA were defined with two criteria, hemoglobin concentration of less than 10 mg/dL (its normal range during the third trimesters of pregnancy is 11-14mg/dL) (4) and ferritin less than 40 ng/dL. Patients were categorized into two groups: those with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and those without this condition (no IDA).Red cell indices including hemoglobin (Hb) levels, hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), serum iron (SI) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), concentration of ferritin, C3 and C4 complements and IgA, IgM and IgG subclasses of immunoglobulins were determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 using Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test of normal distribution.Ninety-two patients were studied. They were aged between 15 and 42 years (mean=25.69±6.2). According to our definition of IDA in pregnancy, 21 patients (22.
Neutron spectrum measurement in D+Be reaction
F. Abbasi Davani,G. R. Etaati,H. . Afarideh,R. Koohi Fayegh
Iranian Journal of Physics Research , 2002,
Abstract: In this project the neutron spectra from the reaction of deutron on beryllium muclei is measured. The energies of deuterons were 7, 10, 13 and 15 MeV, and these measurements are performed at 10, 30 and 50 degrees relative to the beam of deutrons. The detector used is 76 by 76 mm right circular cylender of NE-213 liquid scintillator. The zero crossing technique is used for gamma discriminatin. For the elimination of the background radiation, a Polyethylene block, 40 cm in thickness, with inserted cadmium sheets, and a lead block, 5 cm in thickness, were used. In order to obtain the background radiation spectrum, the latter blocks were placed between the target and the detector to eliminate neutron and gamma radiations reaching the detector directly. FORIST code is used to unfold the neutron spectra from the measured pulse hight spectra and O5S and RESPMG codes are used to obtain the detector response matrix.
Historical and mathematical aspects of iterative solutions for Monte Carlo simulations
Was, Z.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: Over the last 25 years Monte Carlo programs were being developped in Cracow in the group guided by Prof. Stanislaw Jadach. Many of those programs became standard in their application domains. In the following let us review some aspects of such projects which were probably at the foundation of their success. We will concentrate on mathematical aspects of their design and history of their construction. It is rather difficult to cover 25 years of the research in a single talk. That is why, I have organized my presentation around Monte Carlo PHOTOS but stressing its relation to other activities and projects often realized together with Prof. Jadach. Many of omitted aspects will find their way into other perentations collected in this volume. I will concentrate on issues related to phasespace parametrization and spin amplitudes as used in our Monte Carlo programs such as MUSTRAAL, TAUOLA or KKMC and their similarities and differences with respect to solution used in PHOTOS.
Trefoil knot and ad-hoc classification of elementary fields in the Standard Model
Z. Was
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)01346-4
Abstract: We present an arbitrary model based on the trefoil knot to construct objects of the same spectrum as that of elementary particles. It includes `waves' and three identical sets of sources. Due to Lorentz invariance, `waves' group into 3 types of 1, 3 and 8 objects and `sources' consists of 3 identical sets of 30+2 elements, which separate into: 1 * 1 * 2 + 1 * 2 * 2 + 3 * 2 * 2 + 3 * 1 * 2 + 3 * 1 * 2 and another 1 * 1 * 2 group (which does not match classification of the Standard Model fields). On the other hand, there is no room in this construction for objects directly corresponding to Higgs-like degrees of freedom.
TAUOLA the library for tau lepton decay, and KKMC/KORALB/KORALZ/... status report
Z. Was
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(01)01200-2
Abstract: The status of the Monte Carlo programs for the simulation of the $\tau$ lepton production in high energy accelerator experiments and decay is reviewed. In particular, the status of the following packages is discussed: (i) TAUOLA for tau-lepton decay, (ii) PHOTOS for radiative corrections in decays, (iii) KORALB, KORALZ, KKMC packages for tau-pair production in e+e- collisions and (iv) universal interface of TAUOLA for the decay of tau-leptons produced by``any'' generator. Special emphasis on requirements from new and future experiments is given. Some considerations about the software organization necessary to keep simultaneously distinct physics initializations for TAUOLA are also included.
New hadronic currents in TAUOLA: for confrontation with the experimental data
Z. Was
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2012.02.040
Abstract: The status of implementation of new hadronic currents into the Monte Carlo system for simulation of tau-lepton production and decay in high-energy accelerator experiments is reviewed. Since the tau-lepton conference in 2010 substantial progress was achieved: (i) For the TAUOLA Monte Carlo generator of tau-lepton decays, automated and simultaneous use of many versions of form factors for the calculation of optional weights for fits was developed and checked to work in the Belle and BaBar software environment. Alternative parameterizations of hadronic currents based on the Resonance Chiral approach are available now. This was achieved for more than 88% of the total tau hadronic width. (ii) the TAUOLA universal interface based on HepMC (the C++ event record) is available. This is the case for C++ users of PHOTOS Monte Carlo for radiative corrections in decays, as well. An algorithm for weighted events to explore spin effects in analysis of hard processes was prepared. (iii) Kernels featuring a complete first-order matrix element are available now for PHOTOS users interested in decays of Z and W bosons. New tests with different options of matrix elements for those and for Kl3 decays are available as well. Presented results illustrate the status of the projects performed in collaboration with Zofia Czyczula, Nadia Davidson, Tomasz Przedzinski, Olga Shekhovtsova, Elzbieta Richter-Was, Pablo Roig, Qingjun Xu and others.
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