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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 306 matches for " Yuzuru Yoshii "
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A Technique Fof Determining the Extragalactic Distance Scale
Masashi Chiba,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1086/175424
Abstract: We propose a method of distance determination based on the internal structure and dynamics of disk galaxies. The method relies on the universal luminosity profile of a stellar disk represented by an exponential law. Calibrating nearby galaxies with known distances, it is found that the scale length of the disk is tightly correlated with the specific combination of central surface brightness {\it and} rotational velocity at a characteristic radius of 2.15 scale lengths from the center. This suggests that the scale length of the disk may be used as an indicator for extragalactic distance scale. The application of this relation to M51 and M100 allows us to arrive at the distances of about 6 Mpc and 14 Mpc, respectively, implying a Hubble constant of $H_0 = 92 \sim 94$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$.
A new test for the Galactic formation and evolution -- prediction for the orbital eccentricity distribution of the halo stars
Kohei Hattori,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16998.x
Abstract: We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity in a galaxy halo, assuming that the stars constitute a spherical, collisionless system in dynamical equilibrium with a dark matter halo. In order to define the eccentricity e of a halo star for given energy E and angular momentum L, we adopt two types of gravitational potential, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential, that could form two ends covering in-between any realistic potential of dark matter halo. Based on a distribution function of the form f(E,L) that allows constant anisotropy in velocity dispersions characterized by a parameter \beta, we find that the eccentricity distribution is a monotonically increasing function of e for the case of highly radially anisotropic velocity dispersions (\beta > 0.6), while showing a hump-like shape for the cases from radial through tangential velocity anisotropy (\beta < 0.6). We also find that when the velocity anisotropy agrees with that observed for the Milky Way halo stars (\beta = 0.5-0.7), a nearly linear eccentricity distribution of N(e) \alpha e results at e < 0.7, largely independent of the potential adopted. Our theoretical eccentricity distribution would be a vital tool of examining how far out in the halo the dynamical equilibrium has been achieved, through comparison with kinematics of halo stars sampled at greater distances. Given that large surveys of the SEGUE and Gaia projects would be in progress, we discuss how our results would serve as a new guide in exploring the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.
New limits on a cosmological constant from statistics of gravitational lensing
Masashi Chiba,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306575
Abstract: We present new limits on cosmological parameters from the statistics of gravitational lensing, based on the recently revised knowledge of the luminosity function and internal dynamics of E/S0 galaxies that are essential in lensing high-redshift QSOs. We find that the lens models using updated Schechter parameters for such galaxies, derived from the recent redshift surveys combined with morphological classification, are found to give smaller lensing probabilities than earlier calculated. Inconsistent adoption of these parameters from a mixture of various galaxy surveys gives rise to systematic biases in the results. We also show that less compact dwarf-type galaxies which largely dominate the faint part of the Schechter-form luminosity function contribute little to lensing probabilities, so that earlier lens models overestimate incidents of small separation lenses. Applications of the lens models to the existing lens surveys indicate that reproduction of both the lensing probability of optical sources and the image separations of optical and radio lenses is significantly improved in the revised lens models. The likelihood analyses allow us to conclude that a flat universe with Omega=0.3(+0.2-0.1) and Omega+Lambda=1 is most preferable, and a matter-dominated flat universe with Lambda=0 is ruled out at 98 % confidence level. These new limits are unaffected by inclusion of uncertainties in the lens properties.
Dynamical response to supernova-induced gas removal in two-component spherical galaxies
Masahiro Nagashima,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06314.x
Abstract: We investigate dynamical response on size and velocity dispersion to mass loss by supernovae in formation of two-component spherical galaxies composed of baryon and dark matter. Three-dimensional deprojected de Vaucouleurs-like and exponential-like profiles for baryon, embedded in truncated singular isothermal and homogeneous profiles for dark matter, are considered. As a more realistic case, we also consider a dark matter profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White. For simplicity we assume that dark matter distribution is not affected by mass loss and that the change of baryonic matter distribution is homologous. We found that the degree of the response depends on the fraction of dark matter in the region where baryon is distributed, so that dwarf spheroidal galaxies would be affected even in a dark halo if they are formed by galaxy mergers in the envelope of the dark halo. Our results suggest that this scenario, combined with dynamical response, would make not only the observed trends but the dispersed characteristics of dwarf spheroidals.
Orbital Eccentricity Distribution of Solar-Neighbour Halo Stars
Kohei Hattori,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19639.x
Abstract: We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity for a sample of solar-neighbour halo stars. Two types of static, spherical gravitational potentials are adopted to define the eccentricity e for given energy E and angular momentum L, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential that can serve as two extreme ends covering in-between any realistic potential of the Milky Way halo. The solar-neighbour eccentricity distribution \Delta N(e) is then formulated, based on a static distribution function of the form f(E,L) in which the velocity anisotropy parameter \beta monotonically increases in the radial direction away from the galaxy center, such that beta is below unity (near isotropic velocity dispersion) in the central region and asymptotically approaches \sim 1 (radially anisotropic velocity dispersion) in the far distant region of the halo. We find that \Delta N(e) sensitively depends upon the radial profile of \beta, and this sensitivity is used to constrain such profile in comparison with some observational properties of \Delta N_{obs}(e) recently reported by Carollo et al. (2010). Especially, the linear e-distribution and the fraction of higher-e stars for their sample of solar-neighbour inner-halo stars rule out a constant profile of \beta, contrary to the opposite claim by Bond et al. (2010). Our constraint of \beta \lesssim 0.5 at the galaxy center indicates that the violent relaxation that has acted on the inner halo is effective within a scale radius of \sim 10 kpc from the galaxy center. We discuss that our result would help understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.
Three-dimensional orbits of metal-poor halo stars and the formation of the Galaxy
Masashi Chiba,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/311022
Abstract: We present the three-dimensional orbital motions of metal-poor stars in conjunction with their metal abundances, for the purpose of getting insight into the formation process of the Galaxy. Our sample stars, which include metal-deficient red giants and RR Lyrae variables observed by the Hipparcos satellite, are least affected by known systematics, stemmed from kinematic bias, metallicity calibration, and secondary metal contamination of stellar surface. We find, for the stars in the metallicity range of [Fe/H]<-1, that there is no evidence for the correlation between [Fe/H] and their orbital eccentricities e. Even for [Fe/H]<-1.6, about 16% of the stars have e less than 0.4. We show that the e distribution of orbits for [Fe/H]<-1.6 is independent of the height |z| away from the Galactic plane, whereas for [Fe/H]>-1.6 the stars at |z|>1 kpc are systematically devoid of low-e orbits with e<0.6. This indicates that low-e stars with [Fe/H]<-1.6 belong to the halo component, whereas the rapidly-rotating thick disk with a scale height about 1 kpc has a metal-weak tail in the range of -1.6<[Fe/H]<-1. The fraction of this metal-weak thick disk appears to be only less than 20%. The significance of these results for the early evolution of the Galaxy is briefly discussed.
Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars
Masashi Chiba,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/300177
Abstract: The kinematics of 122 red giants and 124 RR Lyrae variables in the solar neighborhood is studied using accurate measurements of their proper motions by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined with the published photometric distances, metal abundances and radial velocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances with [Fe/H]<-1 and thus represent the old stellar populations in the Galaxy. The halo component with [Fe/H]<-1.6 is characterized by no systemic rotation and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. About 16% of such metal-poor stars have low orbital eccentricities e<0.4, and we see no evidence for the correlation between [Fe/H] and e. Based on the model for the e distribution of orbits, we show that this fraction of low e stars for [Fe/H]<-1.6 is explained from the halo component alone, without introducing the extra disk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by no significant change of the e distribution with the height from the Galactic plane. This metal-weak thick disk component appears to comprise only about 10% for -1.6< [Fe/H]<-1 and 20% for -1.4<[Fe/H]<-1. It is also verified that the disk has the mean rotation of about 195 km/s and the vertical extent of 1 kpc, which is consistent with the thick disk dominating at [Fe/H]=-0.6 to -1. The implications of these results for the early evolution of the Galaxy are also presented.
N-Body Code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement
Hideki Yahagi,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322457
Abstract: We have developed a simulation code with the techniques which enhance both spatial and time resolution of the PM method for which the spatial resolution is restricted by the spacing of structured mesh. The adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique subdivides the cells which satisfy the refinement criterion recursively. The hierarchical meshes are maintained by the special data structure and are modified in accordance with the change of particle distribution. In general, as the resolution of the simulation increases, its time step must be shortened and more computational time is required to complete the simulation. Since the AMR enhances the spatial resolution locally, we reduce the time step locally also, instead of shortening it globally. For this purpose we used a technique of hierarchical time steps (HTS) which changes the time step, from particle to particle, depending on the size of the cell in which particles reside. Some test calculations show that our implementation of AMR and HTS is successful. We have performed cosmological simulation runs based on our code and found that many of halo objects have density profiles which are well fitted to the universal profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk, & White (1996) over the entire range of their radius.
Unavoidable Selection Effects in the Analysis of Faint Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field: Probing the Cosmology and Merger History of Galaxies
Tomonori Totani,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/309313
Abstract: (Abridged) We present a detailed analysis of the number count and photometric redshift distribution of faint galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), paying a special attention to the selection effects including the cosmological dimming of surface brightness of galaxies. We find a considerably different result from previous studies ignoring the selection effects, and these effects should therefore be taken into account in the analysis. We find that the model of pure luminosity evolution (PLE) of galaxies in the Einstein-de Sitter (EdS) universe predicts much smaller counts than those observed at faint magnitude limits by a factor of more than 10, so that a very strong number evolution of galaxies with \eta > 3-4 must be invoked to reproduce the I_{814} counts, when parametrized as \phi^* \propto (1+z)^\eta. However we show that such a strong number evolution under realistic merging processes of galaxies can not explain the steep slope of the B_{450} and V_{606} counts, and it is seriously inconsistent with their photometric redshift distribution. We find that these difficulties still persist in an open universe with \Omega_0 > 0.2, but are resolved only when we invoke a $\Lambda$-dominated flat universe, after examining various systematic uncertainties in modeling the formation and evolution of galaxies. The present analysis revitalizes the practice of using faint number counts as an important cosmological test, giving one of the arguments against the EdS universe and suggests acceleration of the cosmic expansion by vacuum energy density. While a modest number evolution of galaxies with \eta ~ 1 is still necessary even in a Lambda-dominated universe, a stronger number evolution with \eta > 1 is rejected from the HDF data, giving a strong constraint on the merger history of galaxies.
An improved cosmic crystallography method to detect holonomies in flat spaces
Hirokazu Fujii,Yuzuru Yoshii
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116521
Abstract: A new, improved version of a cosmic crystallography method for constraining cosmic topology is introduced. Like the circles-in-the-sky method using CMB data, we work in a thin, shell-like region containing plenty of objects. Two pairs of objects (quadruplet) linked by a holonomy show a specific distribution pattern, and three filters of \emph{separation, vectorial condition}, and \emph{lifetime of objects} extract these quadruplets. Each object $P_i$ is assigned an integer $s_i$, which is the number of candidate quadruplets including $P_i$ as their members. Then an additional device of $s_i$-histogram is used to extract topological ghosts, which tend to have high values of $s_i$. In this paper we consider flat spaces with Euclidean geometry, and the filters are designed to constrain their holonomies. As the second filter, we prepared five types that are specialized for constraining specific holonomies: one for translation, one for half-turn corkscrew motion and glide reflection, and three for $n$-th turn corkscrew motion for $n=4, 3,$ and 6. {Every multiconnected space has holonomies that are detected by at least one of these five filters.} Our method is applied to the catalogs of toy quasars in flat $\Lambda$-CDM universes whose typical sizes correspond to $z\sim 5$. With these simulations our method is found to work quite well. {These are the situations in which type-II pair crystallography methods are insensitive because of the tiny number of ghosts. Moreover, in the flat cases, our method should be more sensitive than the type-I pair (or, in general, $n$-tuplet) methods because of its multifilter construction and its independence from $n$.}
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