Abstract:
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish a new and correct flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.

Abstract:
Zero-dimensional $O(n)$-symmetric sigma models are studied by using Picard--Lefschetz integration method in the presence of small symmetry-breaking perturbations. Due to approximate symmetry, downward flows turn out to show significant structures: They slowly travel along the set of pseudo classical points, and branch into other directions so as to span middle-dimensional integration cycles. We propose an efficient way to find such slow motions for computing Lefschetz thimbles. In the limit of symmetry restoration, we figure out that only special combinations of Lefschetz thimbles can survive as convergent integration cycles: Other integrations become divergent due to non-compactness of the complexified group of symmetry. We also compute downward flows of $O(2)$-symmetric fermionic systems, and confirm that all of these properties are true also with fermions.

Abstract:
New formulation of fermionic functional renormalization group (f-FRG) with multiple regulators is proposed. It is applied to a two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction in order to study the whole region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer to Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. Combining a conventional formalism of FRG with a two-point infrared (IR) regulator and a new formalism with an IR regulator inside the four-fermion vertex, we control both one-particle fermion excitations and collective bosonic excitations. This justifies a simple approximation on the f-FRG method, so that the connection of the f-FRG formalism to the Nozi\`eres-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory is made clear. Aspects of f-FRG to go beyond the NSR theory are also discussed.

Abstract:
Fermionic functional renormalization group (f-FRG) is applied to describe Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers for a two-component fermionic system with attractive contact interaction. In order to describe the system of dimers without introducing auxiliary bosonic fields (bosonization), we propose a new exact evolution-equation of the effective action in f-FRG with an infrared regulator for the fermion vertex. Then we analyze its basic properties in details. We show explicitly that the critical temperature of the free Bose gas is obtained naturally by this method without bosonization. Methods to make systematic improvement from the deep BEC limit are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish a new and correct flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.

Abstract:
The Picard-Lefschetz theory offers a promising tool to solve the sign problem in QCD and other field theories with complex path-integral weight. In this paper the Lefschetz-thimble approach is examined in simple fermionic models which share some features with QCD. In zero-dimensional versions of the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, we study the structure of Lefschetz thimbles and its variation across the chiral phase transition. We map out a phase diagram in the complex four-fermion coupling plane using a thimble decomposition of the path integral, and demonstrate an interesting link between anti-Stokes lines and Lee-Yang zeros. In the case of nonzero mass, it is shown that the approach to the chiral limit is singular because of intricate cancellation between competing thimbles, which implies the necessity to sum up multiple thimbles related by symmetry. We also consider a Chern-Simons theory with fermions in $0+1$-dimension and show how Lefschetz thimbles solve the complex phase problem caused by a topological term. These prototypical examples would aid future application of this framework to bona fide QCD.

Abstract:
Picard--Lefschetz theory is applied to path integrals of quantum mechanics, in order to compute real-time dynamics directly. After discussing basic properties of real-time path integrals on Lefschetz thimbles, we demonstrate its computational method in a concrete way by solving three simple examples of quantum mechanics. It is applied to quantum mechanics of a double-well potential, and quantum tunneling is discussed. We identify all of the complex saddle points of the classical action, and their properties are discussed in detail. However a big theoretical difficulty turns out to appear in rewriting the original path integral into a sum of path integrals on Lefschetz thimbles. We discuss generality of that problem and mention its importance. Real-time tunneling processes are shown to be described by those complex saddle points, and thus semi-classical description of real-time quantum tunneling becomes possible on solid ground if we could solve that problem.

Abstract:
The Lefschetz thimble method, i.e., the integration along the steepest descent cycles, is an idea to evade the sign problem by complexifying the theory. We discuss that such steepest descent cycles can be identified as ground-state wave-functions of a supersymmetric Hamilton dynamics, which is described with a framework akin to the complex Langevin method. We numerically construct the wave-functions on a grid using a toy model and confirm their well-localized behavior.

Abstract:
Fermionic functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to describe the superfluid phase transition of the two-component fermionic system with attractive contact interaction. Connection between the fermionic FRG approach and the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory with Gorkov and Melik-Barkhudarov (GMB) correction are clarified in details in the weak coupling region by using the renormalization group flow of the fermionic four-point vertex with particle-particle and particle-hole scattering contributions. To go beyond the BCS+GMB theory, coupled FRG flow equations of the fermion self-energy and the four-point vertex are studied under an Ansatz concerning their frequency/momentum dependence. We found that the fermion self-energy turns out to be substantial even in the weak couping region, and the frequency dependence of the four-point vertex is essential to obtain the correct asymptotic-ultraviolet behavior of the flow for the self-energy. The superfluid transition temperature and the associated chemical potential are calculated in the region of negative scattering lengths.

Abstract:
The fermion sign problem appearing in the mean-field approximation is considered, and the systematic computational scheme of the free energy is devised by using the Lefschetz-thimble method. We show that the Lefschetz-thimble method respects the reflection symmetry, which makes physical quantities manifestly real at any order of approximations using complex saddle points. The formula is demonstrated through the Airy integral as an example, and its application to the Polyakov-loop effective model of dense QCD is discussed in detail.