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RAPD variation within and among four populations of Paris polyphylla

ZHANG Jin-Yu,YU Hong,ZHANG Shi-Gang,DING Chang-Chun Laboratory of Ecological Genetics,College of Life Science,Yunnan University,Kunming Inmol Laboratory of Biotechnology of Yunnan,Kunming Agricultural Quality,Standard,Testing for Technology Institute,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Kunming,

生物多样性 , 2004,
Abstract: The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to assess the genetic diversity and structure of four populations of two varieties of Paris polyphylla. As a control, a population of P. cronquistii was compared with the four P. polyphylla populations to determine their phylogenetic relationships. Using 16 random primers, a total of 246 RAPD polymorphic loci were detected. At the population level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPB) of two populations of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was 57.4% and 54.67%, while Shannon information index (I) was 0.3080 and 0.2830, respectively. The PPB of two P. polyphylla var. chinensis populations was 56.33% and 57.75%, while Shannon information index (I) were 0.3080 and 0.3293, respectively. At the variety level, the PPB, I and Gst values of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were 75.14%, 0.3922, and 0.3085, respectively, while those of P. polyphylla var. chinensis was 80.31%, 0.3992, and 0.3726, respectively. At the species level, the PPB was 92.05%, and Gst was 0.5151. The UPGMA dendrogram showed that the two varieties of P. polyphylla are more related to each other than to P. cronquistii, which supports the previous treatment of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis as two varieties within P. polyphylla based on gross morphology.
Phenotypic diversity of sugarcane variety germplasm

Xinlong Liu,Qing Cai,Caiwen Wu,Li Ma,Xiongmei Ying,Xin Lu,Yuanhong Fan,Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement,Kaiyuan,Yunnan Sugarcane Research Institute,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Yunnan Biotechnology & Genetic Resources Institute,Kunming,

生物多样性 , 2010,
Abstract: Sugarcane varieties are important in providing parental resources in sugarcane breeding programs.In order to improve efficiency in selecting sugarcane varieties as parents,to provide guidance in choosing the best parent combinations for crossing,and to assist in choosing core collections of parents,the genetic variation,genetic structure and relationships of a range of traits were studied in a set of sugarcane varieties from different origins.Seventeen qualitative traits and five quantitative traits were st...
Determination of anions in Tricholoma giganteum fruiting body by ultrasonic assisted extraction-ion chromatography

LIU Hong-Gao WANG Yuan-Zhong ZHANG Ji ZHAO Yan-Li College of Agronomy,Biotechnology,Yunnan Agricultural University,Kunming,China Institute of Medicinal Plant,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Kunming,China,

菌物学报 , 2011,
Abstract: 采用超声波(UAE)辅助提取-离子色谱(IC)法测定了大白口蘑中F?、Cl?、NO2?、NO3?、PO43? 5种阴离子。选用NaOH溶液(3.0mmol/L)超声渗提30min后进样100μL,通过流速为1.2mL/min的淋洗液Na2CO3+NaHCO3(3.5mmol/L+1.0mmol/L)洗脱。F?、Cl?、NO2?、NO3?、PO43? 5种离子线性范围分别为2-25mg/L、2-20mg/L、2-100mg/L、10-55mg/L、10-100mg/L,峰面积RSD分别为0.58%、1.27%、0.73%、0.92%、2.33%,检出限在0.0976-1.0984mg/L之间。大白口蘑样品中未检出NO2?,其余F?、Cl?、NO3?、PO43? 4种离子加标回收率在95%-110%之间。
Frugivores and their food plants: have they coevolved?

LIU Yong,CHEN JinXishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Carden,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Mengla,Yunnan,

生物多样性 , 2002,
Abstract: Whether a coevolutionary relationship exists between frugivores and their food plants has beenargued for 30 years. Plant seeds dispersed by frugivores provide many advantages to plants, which mayinclude escaping from the parents where seed or seedling predators are disproportionately abundant, colo-nizing new habitat patches and increasing gene flow. Simultaneously, frugivores obtain nutritional and en-ergetic rewards as a consequence of digesting fruit pulp. The unique attributes of these two partners maygive rise to a coevolutionary relationship. This concept stimulated studies on this field in early years.Some studies suggested that " diffuse coevolution" between plants and their dispersers might exist, whichmay occur at the level of genus or family. Alternatively, the relationship may be one of just functional e-quivalence with no relationship to traditional taxonomy. It is also suggested that the evolution of seed dis-persal systems is mainly determined by a few key dispersers and plants, which may control the evolutionof related traits of other species. The defense scenario hypothesis, however, suggests that fleshy pulp offruits was produced originally as a kind of defensive structure to protect seeds, only later becoming traitsto promote seed dispersal. In recent years, many studies have suggested that the selective pressure be-tween dispersers and plants is rather weak. Suitable sites for seed germination and seedling establishmentare temporally and spatially unpredictable. Evolutionary rates of herbivores and their food plants are une-qual. High unpredictability and asymmetry of interaction, coupled with an important influence of abioticfactors, means that the influences of mutual selection pressures between plants and seed dispersers aregreatly eonstrained. The evolutionary interaction between frugivores and plants in seed dispersal should bere-evaluated. Attention should be paid to the complexity and the diversity of the relationship between fru-givores and plants. Comparative studies on the systematics of related species to evaluate the possible in-fluence from the interaction of plants and their frugivores upon the specification of species may providepowerful evidence for coevolution. Furthermore, the influences of frugivore-plant interactions on ecologi-cal dynamics and conservation will continue to be a hot topic.
Marginal diversity and its application to Chinese sheep breeds conservation

Yuehui Ma Institute of Animal Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing,

生物多样性 , 2005,
Abstract: This paper introduced an approach of marginal diversity, and evaluated the contribution, marginal diversity and conservation potency of each of the 11 sheep breeds from northern China based on genetic distance and extinction probability. The results showed that the marginal diversity of Sunite sheep was the highest (-0.2008), Tan sheep (-0.1932) and Lanzhou large tailed sheep (-0.1843) the next, and Minxian black fur sheep the lowest (-0.1268). The conservation potency of Lanzhou barge tailed sheep was the highest (0.1419), the second was Tong sheep (0.1017), and small tailed Han sheep was the lowest (0.0365). Our result suggested that the optimum conservation strategy is to give priority to those breeds with the highest conservation potency,rather than to the most endangered breeds; thus, Lanzhou large tailed sheep and Tong sheep should be given conservation priority.
The importance of classical biological control to biodiversity protection

Lu Qingguang Biological Control Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing,

生物多样性 , 1997,
Abstract: Exotic pests under certain conditions are able to threaten a native biodiversity, breaking down the ecological balance and bringing great economic losses. The science of classical biological control (or the Classical Biocontrology) has been demonstrated that the sustainable pest control can be obtained by the introduction of natural enemies from the pest home region into its invaded region. This is one of the strategy and tactics on biodiversity protection, it is: from biodiversity to biodiversity. A general situation on classical biocontrol in China, including summary of the research history, current studies and discussions are presented in this paper.

TANG DE-ZHIInstitute of Plant Protection,Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,

菌物学报 , 1985,
Abstract: A new species of Peronospora was found on Polygonum convolvulus L. and identified as Peronospora sinensis Tang.The differences between this new species and other Peronospora on related hosts,especially P.duconetii Sien.et Jdmk, P.jaapiana Magn,P.polygoni Thum ex A.Fischer,P.polygoni-convolvuli Gust.,P.am- ericana G umann and P.rumicis Cda.,are noted. Type specimen is deposited in the Iustitute of Plant Protection,Gansn Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
Recent Advances in Structures and Relative Enzyme Properties of Xylanase

YANG Hao Meng,YAO Bin,FAN Yun Liu Feed Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing,China Biotechnology Research Center,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing,China,

生物工程学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Xylanase can hydrolyze xylans into xylooligosaccharides and D xylose, and has great prospect for applications in feed industry, paper and pulp industry, food industry and environment science. The study of xylanase had been started in 1960's.With the development and application of the new technologies, such as molecular biology, structural biology and protein engineering, many progresses have been made in the research of structures and functions of xylanase. This paper reviews the research progress and trend in the structure correlating with the important properties of xylanase. Analyses of three dimensional structures and properties of mutants have revealed that glutamine and aspartic acid residues are involved in the catalytic mechanism.The thermostability of xylanase correlated with many factors, such as disulfide bridges,salt bridges,aromatic interactions,cotent of arginine and proline,and some multidomain xylanase have thermostability domains in N or C terminal.But no single mechanism is responsible for the remarkable stability of xylanase.The isoelectic points and reaction pH of xylanase are influenced by hydrophobicity and content of electric charges.Many researches had demonstrated that aromatic amino acid,histidine,and tryptophan play an important role in improving enzyme substrate affinity.The researches of structures and functions of xylanase are of great significance in understanding the catalytic mechanism and directing the improvement of xylanase properties to meet the application requirement.

ZHANG MEI-QING,WANG YOU-SHAN Institute of Soil & Fertilizer,Beijing Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing HUANG LEI Institute of Microbiology,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural sciences,Urumqi,

菌物学报 , 1992,
Abstract: 本文为继“我国北部的七种VA菌根真菌”之后的续篇,报道了从北京、新疆和吉林分离的八个种:细凹无梗囊霉 Acaulospora sarobiculata Trappe,蜜色无梗囊霉A.Mellea Spaia & Schenck,稍长无梗囊霉A.Longula Spain&Schenck,近明球囊霉 Glomus claroideum Schenck & Smith,集球囊霉G.Fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd.& Trappe,emend.Walker & Koske,地球囊霉G. geosporum (Nicol.& Gerd.) Walker,何氏球囊霉G,hoi Berch & Trapp%根内球囊霉 G. intraradix Schenck & Smith。其中,细凹无梗囊霉、蜜色无梗囊霉、稍长无梗囊霉和何氏球囊霉等4个为我国新记录种。本文报道了上述8种的形态特征描述、孢壁组织化学反应及生境状况。
Effect of global warming on insect:a literature review

CHEN Yu,MA Chunsen Institute of Environment,Sustainable Development in Agriculture,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,

生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Climate change is an important environmental problem which has caused great concern around the world. Climate change\|particularly global warming\|has a direct and indirect impact on poikilothermic animals, especially for insects and the biotic community around them. We review the most recent progress in effects of global warming on insects and methodologies used in the research. Global warming may lead to an advance in insect phenology, and shift in geographic distribution to higher latitude and altitude. It may also restrain abundance of the low temperature adaptive species and promote abundance of the high temperature adaptive species. In addition, global warming disturbs the synchrony of host plant\|herbivore\|natural enemy in phenology and other interactions among different species, modifies the spectrum of host\|plants and feeding capacity of insects. An intense stress caused by long\|term high temperature leads to a variation of gene frequency in insect population. Furthermore, global warming in terms of the increase in daily average temperature and maximum temperature, and the decrease in diurnal temperature have crucial effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of insect. The main research approaches to study effects of global warming on insects include: direct observation in field, regression models developed with historical data, day\|degree models, and ecological risk assessment programs e.g. CLIMEX and GIS, paleontological comparison, ecological experiments in climate chambers, and examination of the gene frequency with gene marker. At last, we review the weakness of previous studies and point out research directions in the near future: (1) investigating biology and ecology of more species of important crop pests, and inter\|specific interactions under global warming scenarios; (2) studying more on insect adaptation to high temperature; (3) developing new experimental approaches and collecting better data under artificial climate conditions; (4) constructing validated ecological models of insects which was driven by temperature and other ecological factors.
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