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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 435 matches for " Yukiko Yanagi "
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Assessment of Long-Term Compost Application on Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties, as Well as Fertility, of Soil in a Field Subjected to Double Cropping  [PDF]
Yukiko Yanagi, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.71004
Abstract: The aim of this article was to assess the influence of long-term application of compost on the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as the fertility, of soil in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley), mainly by integrating previous studies of the effects of compost and manure on soil qualities. Continuous compost application, especially at a high level (30 Mg·ha-1·y-1), into the double cropping soils increased the activities of organic C-, N-, and P-decomposing enzymes and the contents of organic C, total N, and microbial biomass N, as well as the cation exchange capacity, thereby contributing to the enhancement of soil fertility. Also, the compost application increased the degree of water-stable soil macroaggregation (>0.25 mm), which was correlated significantly (r > 0.950, p < 0.05) with the contents of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (with negative charge) and active Al (with positive charge), and resulted in the modification of soil physical properties. Furthermore, the application increased the amount of soil organic matter, including humic acid with a low degree of darkening and fulvic acid, and contributed to C sequestration and storage. Physical fractionation of soil indicated that about 60% of soil organic C was distributed in the silt-sized (2 - 20 μm) aggregate and clay-sized (<2 μm) aggregate fractions, while about 30% existed in the decayed plant fractions (53 - 2000 μm). The results obtained unambiguously indicate that long-term application of compost can improve soil qualities in the field subjected to double cropping, depending on the amount applied.
Application of Metabolic 13C Labeling in Conjunction with High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Comparative Conformational Analysis of High Mannose-Type Oligosaccharides
Yukiko Kamiya,Kotaro Yanagi,Toshihiko Kitajima,Takumi Yamaguchi,Yasunori Chiba,Koichi Kato
Biomolecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/biom3010108
Abstract: High mannose-type oligosaccharides are enzymatically trimmed in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in various processing intermediates with exposed glycotopes that are recognized by a series of lectins involved in glycoprotein fate determination in cells. Although recent crystallographic data have provided the structural basis for the carbohydrate recognition of intracellular lectins, atomic information of dynamic oligosaccharide conformations is essential for a quantitative understanding of the energetics of carbohydrate–lectin interactions. Carbohydrate NMR spectroscopy is useful for characterizing such conformational dynamics, but often hampered by poor spectral resolution and lack of recombinant techniques required to produce homogeneous glycoforms. To overcome these difficulties, we have recently developed a methodology for the preparation of a homogeneous high mannose-type oligosaccharide with 13C labeling using a genetically engineered yeast strain. We herein successfully extended this method to result in the overexpression of 13C-labeled Man 9GlcNAc 2 (M9) with a newly engineered yeast strain with the deletion of four genes involved in N-glycan processing. This enabled high-field NMR analyses of 13C-labeled M9 in comparison with its processing product lacking the terminal mannose residue Man D2. Long-range NOE data indicated that the outer branches interact with the core in both glycoforms, and such foldback conformations are enhanced upon the removal of Man D2. The observed conformational variabilities might be significantly associated with lectins and glycan-trimming enzymes.
Role of Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor on Blood Retinal Barrier Breakdown
Yasuo Yanagi
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/679237
Abstract: The retinal vessels have two barriers: the retinal pigment epithelium and the retinal vascular endothelium. Each barrier exhibits increased permeability under various pathological conditions. This condition is referred to as blood retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown. Clinically, the most frequently encountered condition causing BRB breakdown is diabetic retinopathy. In recent studies, inflammation has been linked to BRB breakdown and vascular leakage in diabetic retinopathy. Biological support for the role of inflammation in early diabetes is the adhesion of leukocytes to the retinal vasculature (leukostasis) observed in diabetic retinopathy. PPAR is a member of a ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily and plays a critical role in a variety of biological processes, including adipogenesis, glucose metabolism, angiogenesis, and inflammation. There is now strong experimental evidence to support the theory that PPAR inhibits diabetes-induced retinal leukostasis and leakage, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Therapeutic targeting of PPAR may be beneficial to diabetic retinopathy.
Uncertainty relation on Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information
Kenjiro Yanagi
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We give a trace inequality related to the uncertainty relation of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information. This inequality corresponds to a generalization of the uncertainty relation derived by S. Luo for the quantum uncertainty quantity excluding the classical mixture.
Uncertainty Relation on Wigner-Yanase-Dyson Skew Information, II
Kenjiro Yanagi
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We give a trace inequality related to the uncertainty relation of generalized Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information which includes our result in JMAA, vol.365, pp.12-18, 2010.
Relaxation technique training to alleviate emotional stress in patients with chronic pain: A report of two cases  [PDF]
Shinobu Kobayashi, Natsuko Yanagi, Kikuyo Koitabashi
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.31009
Aim: Chronic pain can leads to uncomfortable sensory and emotional experiences and remarkably decrease one’s quality of life. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience of treatment with relaxation techniques for two outpatients with chronic pain-related emotional stress. Methods: We offer outpatient relaxation treatment as a specialized out-patient nursing service. Two patients were motivated to self-manage their pain, and thus sought outpatient instruction in relaxation techniques to provide methods of pain self-management. We examined the usefulness of relaxation techniques as pain self-management methods based on subjective information and the Mental Health Pattern questionnaire. Results: Two patients were able to incorporate the relaxation techniques into their daily schedules and control their symptoms. Ultimately, their attitudes toward their pain changed, which lessened their stress levels and improved their quality of life. Conclusions: Our results suggest that nursing care using continuous relaxation techniques improves pain self-management in patients with chronic pain.
Optimum Maintenance Policy for a One-Shot System with Series Structure Considering Minimal Repair  [PDF]
Tomohiro Kitagawa, Tetsushi Yuge, Shigeru Yanagi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.62031
Abstract: One-shot systems such as missiles and extinguishers are placed in storage for a long time and used only once during their lives. Their reliability deteriorates with time even when they are in storage, and their failures are detected only through inspections for their characteristics. Thus, we need to decide an appropriate inspection policy for such systems. In this paper, we deal with a system comprising non-identical units in series, where only minimal repairs are performed when unit failures are detected by periodic inspections. The system is replaced and becomes “as good as new” when the nth failure of the system is detected. Our objective is to find the optimal inspection interval and number of failures before replacement that minimize the expected total system cost per unit of time.
Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector
Yukiko Yoshida
Carbon Balance and Management , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1750-0680-1-12
Abstract: The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%.Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.Heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems in buildings are a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the commercial sector. Reduction of this source is a common issue for Asian countries that share similar constraints in developing solutions [1,2].In Japan, a cooperative academic, industrial, and governmental project has been established to develop a new system called the Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE). It evaluates all forms of energy usage within buildings [3].The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH: completed in 2001, ferroconcrete, three floors, 4900 m2 total floor space) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies in Japan was constructed according to the latest sustainable environment designs, including global warming abatement technology for buildings [4].Consumption of electricity for lighting, which is related to the interior heat generation load, changes little from season to season. This building is equipped with 32 W high-frequency fluorescent lights whose intensity is controlled to keep a constant brightness independent of the outdoor brightness. The automatic control of lighting was found to realize approximately 30% in annual energy savings compared to lighting with no auto
Assessment of the health of Americans: the average health-related quality of life and its inequality across individuals and groups
Yukiko Asada
Population Health Metrics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-3-7
Abstract: This study uses the 1990 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey from the United States. The measure of HRQL is the Health and Activity Limitation Index (HALex). The measure of health inequality across individuals is the Gini coefficient. This study provides confidence intervals (CI) for the Gini coefficient by a bootstrap method. To describe health inequality by group, this study decomposes the overall Gini coefficient into the between-group, within-group, and overlap Gini coefficient using race (White, Black, and other) as an example. This study looks at how much contribution the overlap Gini coefficient makes to the overall Gini coefficient, in addition to the absolute mean differences between groups.The average HALex was the same in 1990 (0.87, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.88) and 1995 (0.87, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.87). The Gini coefficient for the HALex distribution across individuals was greater in 1995 (0.097, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.099) than 1990 (0.092, 95% CI: 0.091, 0.094). Differences in the average HALex between all racial groups were the same in 1995 as 1990. The contribution of the overlap to the overall Gini coefficient was greater in 1995 than in 1990 by 2.4%. In both years, inequality between racial groups accounted only for 4–5% of overall inequality.The average HRQL of Americans was the same in 1990 and 1995, but inequality in HRQL across individuals was greater in 1995 than 1990. Inequality in HRQL by race was smaller in 1995 than 1990 because race had smaller effect on the way health was distributed in 1995 than 1990. Analysis of the average HRQL and its inequality provides information on the health of a population invisible in the traditional analysis of population health.To assess the health of a population, we have traditionally relied on the average or overall level of health in a population. For example, 77.2 years of life expectancy for Americans in 2001 [1] or an infant mortality rate of 6.8 per 1,000 in the United States in 2001 [2] provide some information ab
The Influence of Learning Beliefs in Peer-advising Sessions: Promoting Independent Language Learning
Yukiko Ishikawa
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This qualitative study was conducted in order to explore interaction between advisors and advisees in peer-advising sessions conducted with a view of promoting independent language study. The data was collected through observation, documentation, and interviews with a newly-trained and relatively inexperienced student peer-advisor. The data was transcribed and coded for closer analysis. The study revealed that the advice which the student advisor gave to peers was very much influenced by her own language study experience and beliefs, especially with regard to grammar-focused study and time-management methods. Moreover, the data offered a number of interesting observations, such as a feeling of relatedness between peers, and a conflict between being strict and being generous. In this article, the author will discuss the areas in which the student advisor’s own beliefs were most reflected in her advising. Other observations from the data will also be highlighted.
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