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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1652 matches for " Yukihiro Shimizu "
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T cell immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection
Yukihiro Shimizu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i20.2443
Abstract: Hepatitis B is caused by the host immune response and T cells play a major role in the immunopathogenesis. More importantly, T cells not only destroy hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), but also control HBV replication or eradicate HBV in a noncytolytic manner. Therefore, analysis of T cell immune response during acute and chronic HBV infection is important to develop a strategy for successful viral control, which could lead to immunotherapy for terminating persistent HBV infection. There have been many attempts at immunotherapy for chronic HBV infection, and some have shown promising results. High viral load has been shown to suppress antiviral immune responses and immunoinhibitory signals have been recently elucidated, therefore, viral suppression by nucleos(t)ide analogs, stimulation of antiviral immune response, and suppression of the immunoinhibitory signals must be combined to achieve desirable antiviral effects.
Liver in systemic disease
Yukihiro Shimizu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.
Role of NKT Cells in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD
Kazuto Tajiri,Yukihiro Shimizu
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850836
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease and shows various inflammatory changes in the liver. Among those inflammatory cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells are found to have a critical role during the disease progression. NKT cells may have a protective role at the early stage with simple steatosis through modification of insulin resistance, whereas they act as a progression factor at the advanced stage with fibrosis. Those processes are thought to depend on interaction between NKT cells and CD1d molecule in the liver.
Hepatic Manifestations in Hematological Disorders
Jun Murakami,Yukihiro Shimizu
International Journal of Hepatology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/484903
Abstract:
Practical guidelines for diagnosis and early management of drug-induced liver injury
Kazuto Tajiri, Yukihiro Shimizu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: The spectrum of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is both diverse and complex. The first step in diagnosis is a suspicion of DILI based on careful consideration of recent comprehensive reports on the disease. There are some situations in which the suspicion of DILI is particularly strong. Exclusion of other possible etiologies according to the pattern of liver injury is essential for the diagnosis. In patients with suspected DILI, diagnostic scales, such as the Councils for International Organizations of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (CIOMS/RUCAM) scale, may be helpful for the final diagnosis. Early management of DILI involves prompt withdrawal of the drug suspected of being responsible, according to serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (T-Bil). However, as DILI patients may show resolution of liver injury without discontinuation of the drug, it should be carefully evaluated whether the suspected drug should be discontinued immediately with adequate consideration of the importance of the medication.
Hepatic Manifestations in Hematological Disorders
Jun Murakami,Yukihiro Shimizu
International Journal of Hepatology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/484903
Abstract: Liver involvement is often observed in several hematological disorders, resulting in abnormal liver function tests, abnormalities in liver imaging studies, or clinical symptoms presenting with hepatic manifestations. In hemolytic anemia, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly are often seen mimicking liver diseases. In hematologic malignancies, malignant cells often infiltrate the liver and may demonstrate abnormal liver function test results accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly or formation of multiple nodules in the liver and/or spleen. These cases may further evolve into fulminant hepatic failure. 1. Introduction Hepatologists or general physicians sometimes encounter hepatic manifestations of various hematologic disorders in daily practice, including various abnormalities in liver function tests or imaging studies of the liver. Some hematologic disorders also mimic liver diseases. While review articles regarding hematologic disorders and liver diseases have been published previously [1–3], we also review more recent topics in this paper. 2. Red Blood Cell (RBC) Disorders 2.1. Hemolytic Anemia (HA) 2.1.1. Classification according to the RBC Destruction Site When the RBC membrane is severely damaged, immediate lysis occurs within the circulation (intravascular hemolysis). In cases of less severe damage, the cells may be destroyed within the monocyte-macrophage system in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes (extravascular hemolysis) [4–6]. 2.1.2. Clinical Presentation Patients with HA typically present with the following findings: rapid onset of anemia, jaundice, history of pigmented (bilirubin) gallstones, and splenomegaly. Mild hepatomegaly can also occur [4]. 2.1.3. Liver Function Tests in HA In hemolysis, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (specifically the LDH1 and LDH2 isoforms) increase because of lysed erythrocytes [4]. Serum aspartate transaminase (AST) levels are also mildly elevated in hemolysis, with the LDH/AST ratio mostly over 30 [7]. Total bilirubin levels can uncommonly exceed 5?mg/dL if hepatic function is normal, except in the case of acute hemolysis caused by sickle cell crisis. Liver dysfunction can also be caused by blood transfusion for anemia in sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia [1, 3]. 2.1.4. Hemolysis in Liver Disease Hemolysis can be caused by either abnormalities in the erythrocyte membranes (intrinsic) or environmental (extrinsic) factors. Most intrinsic causes are hereditary, except for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) or rare conditions of acquired alpha thalassemia [4]. Extrinsic HA is caused by
Role of NKT Cells in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD
Kazuto Tajiri,Yukihiro Shimizu
International Journal of Hepatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850836
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease and shows various inflammatory changes in the liver. Among those inflammatory cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells are found to have a critical role during the disease progression. NKT cells may have a protective role at the early stage with simple steatosis through modification of insulin resistance, whereas they act as a progression factor at the advanced stage with fibrosis. Those processes are thought to depend on interaction between NKT cells and CD1d molecule in the liver. 1. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the world [1]. NAFLD shows various degrees of necroinflammatory changes and fibrosis in the liver and has been shown to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [2]. As for the progression of NAFLD from simple fatty liver (FL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the “two-hit theory,” which proposes the accumulation of fat as the first hit sensitizes the liver to a variety of second “hits” leading to hepatic injury, inflammation and fibrosis, has been generally accepted as an essential mechanism [3], although precise mechanism of the disease progression is still uncertain. Because various degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration are seen in the livers with NAFLD, especially in NASH, immunological mechanisms are also thought to be profoundly associated with the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD leading to fibrosis or HCC. However, the precise role of hepatic inflammation or contribution of immune responses in the pathogenesis of NAFLD has not been clarified yet. Recently, innate immune cells including natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis. In this paper, we summarize and discuss the role of immune reactions in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, especially focusing on NKT cells. 2. Hepatic NKT Cells and Their Role in the Pathogenesis of Liver Diseases 2.1. NKT Cells in the Liver The liver contains a unique population of resident mononuclear cells including innate immune cells such as Kupffer cells (KCs) or NKT cells, possibly because of a defense mechanism against constant exposure to a variety of toxins and antigens from intestinal bacteria through portal veins [4]. NKT cells are most abundant in the liver, and their regulatory roles in hepatic inflammation have been reported [5]. NKT cells are the unique subset of cells, which have both T-cell receptor (TCR) and specific surface molecules for natural killer cells [6] and are found with up to
Peculiar Concentration Dependence of H/D Exchange Reaction in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate-D2O Mixtures  [PDF]
Souichi Ohta, Akio Shimizu, Hiroshi Abe, Naohiro Hatano, Yusuke Ima, Yukihiro Yoshimura
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2011.13010
Abstract: We have investigated the H/D exchange reaction between heavy water and an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), throughout the whole concentration region as a function of D2O mol% at room temperature. We expected that the extent of the H/D reaction would increase linearly with increasing content of D2O, but the results show an extended N-shaped behavior having a small maximum at around 40 mol% and the reaction becomes very slow at a specific concentration around 80 mol%. We found that this non-linear concentration dependence correlates with the pD dependence of the solutions.
Systemic abnormalities in liver disease
Masami Minemura, Kazuto Tajiri, Yukihiro Shimizu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.
Application of matrix product states to the Hubbard model in one spatial dimension
Yukihiro Shimizu,Koji Matsuura,Hikaru Yahagi
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We investigate the application of matrix product states to the Hubbard model in one spatial dimension with both of open and periodic boundary conditions. We develop the variatinal method that the optimization of the variational parameters is carried out locally and sequentially in the framework of matrix product operators (MPO) by including the sign, due to the anti-commutation relation of fermion operators, in the matrix element of MPO. The numerical accuracy of the ground state energy is examined.
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