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Although the standing long jump (SLJ) is a popular physical fitness assessment,
it lacks an updated criterion-reference standard. This study generated the
first normative SLJ test data for Chinese aged 8 - 18. Methods: From September 2005
to December 2011, comprehensive physical fitness assessments were conducted
on 12,712 school students. The SLJ performances were significantly different between boys and girls (all age groups, p < 0.01). Results: The boys performed
better than the girls in each age group. The mean difference increased as the
age increased, depicting a prominent variance in muscular strength between
boys and girls at age 12, and the variances became larger at age 18. Girls in
the 70th percenttile performed similarly to boys performing in the 10th percentile.
The onset of muscle strength for boys found in this study corresponded to the
onset age of testosterone maturation of Chinese boys investigated in previous
studies. Linear regression found age and BMI predicting SLJ significantly for
boys and girls, explaining better SLJ results in older boy and the effect of
their heavy body size. Conclusions: This study indicated a muscular strength
difference between genders during growth and added supporting evidence to
the hormonal influence of muscle growth during puberty.
Cardiorespiratory fitness involves both cardiovascular and respiratory capacities.
However, existing methods have been criticised for reflecting cardiovascular fitness, but not pulmonary fitness.
The objective of this study was to
investigate the relationship between these two testing parameters. Methods:
A cross-sectional population-based physical fitness assessment was conducted in
23 schools. The body height and weight, lung capacity, and step test results of students aged 10-18 were recorded.
Criterion-referenced standards from the China
Sports Bureau were adopted, as they include separate measurements for
cardiovascular and pulmonary fitness.
Results: The Pearson coefficients of lung capacity and the step test
index from 13,028 schoolchildren ranged from 0.007 to 0.086 and from 0.026 to
0.105 for boys and girls, respectively, showing that poor correlations exist
between the two parameters. Cluster analysis resulted in three clusters of
children with similar characteristics. A good degree of similarity was found
between the two parameters in children obtaining an “excellent” grade, but only
a moderate degree of similarity between the
two parameters in those obtaining a “good”,
“pass” or “fail” grade. Conclusion: When cardiovascular fitness and
pulmonary fitness are considered separately,
there is a poor correlation between them, thus indicating further
studies of cardiopulmonary fitness measurements is necessary.