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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 70209 matches for " Yu Ding "
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Galaxy Evolution by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42032
Abstract:

The paper derives the galaxy evolution by the non-interacting (incompatibility) between dark matter and baryonic matter in terms of the short-range separation between dark matter and baryonic matter, so dark matter cannot contact baryonic matter. In the conventional CDM (cold dark matter) model, dark matter and baryonic matter are interactive (compatible), so dark matter can contact baryonic matter. However, the conventional CDM model fails to account for the failure to detect dark matter by the contact (interaction) between dark matter and baryonic matter, the shortage of small galaxies, the abundance of spiral galaxies, the old age of large galaxies, and the formation of thin spiral galaxies. The non-interacting (incompatible cold dark matter) model can account for these observed phenomena. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing non-interacting (incompatibility) are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods.

The Periodic Table of Elementary Particles Based on String Theory  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514123
Abstract:

In this paper, all elementary particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson) can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles based on string theory with oscillating spacetime dimension number, instead of conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number. Dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly. The oscillation of space-time dimension number (D) is accompanied by mass dimension number (d) to represent mass. Space-time dimension number decreases with increasing mass dimension number, decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. 4D particle originally is 4D10d particle, and has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. With the same energy, the relation between adjacent mass dimensions is Md-1=Mdαd2, where M is rest mass, d is mass dimension number, and α is the fine structure constant. According to the proposed cosmology, the non-gravitational 4D10d particles were sliced into 4D4d core particles surrounded by 6 separated mass dimensions as the 6 dimensional orbitals constituting the non-gravitational forces (electromagnetism, strong, and weak). The combination of the 6 dimensional orbitals and the gravitational 4D10d particle resulted in the 7 dimensional orbitals. As the periodic table of elements based on the atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is based on the combination of the two asymmetrical sets of the 7 dimensional orbitals. One set as the principal dimensional orbitals is mainly for leptons and gauge bosons, and another set as the auxiliary orbitals is mainly for individual quarks. The calculated constituent masses of leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson are in good agreement with the observed values. For examples, the calculated mass of top quark is 176.5 GeV in good agreement with the observed 173.34 GeV, and the calculated average mass of the Higgs boson is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV.

String Theory with Oscillating Space-Time Dimension Number  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.56056
Abstract:

In conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number, the extra space dimensions are compactized. In string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly, and there is no compactization. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. The 4D particle has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. The two different oscillations between 10D and 4D are the stepwise oscillation passing through every dimension number and the direct oscillation oscillating directly between 10D and 4D without the intermediate dimension numbers. Dark energy represents the stepwise oscillation, and dark energy becomes observable only when it has 4D space-time. 4D baryonic matter and 4D dark matter represent the direct oscillation directly from 10D to 4D. Our universe is the dual cyclic universe of the dark energy universe and the baryonic-dark matter universe. The Big Bang in the baryonicdark matter universe produced irreversible kinetic energy that stopped the reversible direct oscillation. The reversible direct oscillation will resume after the Big Crush to remove irreversible kinetic energy. Our cyclic universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage transformation. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 68.3, 26.4, and 5.3, respectively, in agreement with observed 68.3, 26.8, and 4.9, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.28 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 ± 0.98 billion years ago.

The Knees-Ankles-Toe in Cosmic Rays and the Periodic Table of Elementary Particles  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.515148
Abstract: This paper posits the discovery of the new elementary particles from the energy spectrum for the knees-ankles-toe of cosmic rays. The energy spectrum from 109 eV to 1020 eV appears to follow a single power law except few breaks at the knees-ankles-toe. The power index increases at the first knee and the second knee, and decreases at the ankle. Above 4 × 1019 eV, the power index increases as the “toe”. The fine structure of the cosmic ray spectrum shows that an ankle with decrease in power index is in between the first knee and the second knee, resulting in two knees, two ankles, and one toe. This paper posits that the knees-ankles-toe are explained by the very high-energy fermions and bosons in the periodic table of elementary particles that places all known leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson in the table with the calculated masses in good agreement with observed values. In the periodic table, some high-energy dimensional fermions (Fd where d= dimensional orbital number from 5 to 11) and bosons (Bd) are involved in the knees-ankles-toe. At the knees and the toe, some parts of the energies from the energy sources of cosmic rays are spent to generate Fd and Bd, resulting in the increase of power index. The ankles are the the middle points (midpoints) between the adjacent dimensional fermions and bosons. At a midpoint, the energy is too high to keep the thermally unstable high-energy dimensional particle,resulting in the decay and the decrease of power index. The calculated masses of B8, the midpoint, F9, the midpoint, and B9, are 1.7 × 1015, 2 × 1016, 2.4 × 1017, 2.8 × 1018, and 3.2 × 1019 eV, respectively, which are in good agreement with observed 3 × 1015, 2 × 1016, 3 × 1017, 3 × 1018, and 4 × 1019 eV for the first knee, the first ankle, the second knee, the second ankle, and the toe, respectively. The mass of F10 is 4.4 × 1021 eV beyond the GZK limit, so F10 and above are not observed.
The Basic Cause of Superconductivity  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.61005
Abstract: This paper posits an extra force field, “super force field”, as the short-distance additional force field to ordinary force fields (gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, and strong) at absolute zero or extremely high density. The short distance super force field accounts for quantum phase transition at absolute zero, and provides the basic cause of superconductivity above absolute zero by quantum fluctuation. At absolute zero or extremely high density, to prevent inactivation or singularity, respectively, the short-distance super force field emerges in between the core particle and the ordinary force field, resulting in the super ordinary force field. In the super ordinary force field, the short-distance super force field excludes the long-distance ordinary force field. At absolute zero, the super ordinary force field emerges to account for quantum phase transition at absolute zero. Through quantum fluctuation, the super ordinary force appears above absolute zero as in superconductivity. Through quantum fluctuation, superconducting electric current is “super current” as one giant quantum state with the super force field that does not interact with ordinary forces, resulting in zero resistance.
The Big Bang Started by the Creation of the Reverse Higgs Field  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69123
Abstract: This paper posits that the Big Bang was started by the creation of the reverse Higgs field as the massless particle-generating field derived from the absorption of the interuniversal void outside of the universe in the reversible multiverse. The interuniversal void surrounding every universe is to prevent the collision of expanding universes which have the inexhaustible resources of space-time to expand. The collision of expanding universes is permanently irreversible, forbidden in the reversible multiverse. To prevent the collision, the interuniversal void detaches the incoming mass-energy in the interuniversal void to keep expanding universes apart without collision. Inside of the universe, the absorbed interuniversal void with the property of the detachment of mass-energy was transformed into the reverse Higgs field that detached adjacent mass-energy in the universe, resulting in the conversion of rest mass (massive particles) into kinetic energy (massless particles) starting the Big Bang. During the Big Bang, the creation of the reverse Higgs field was followed by the conversion of massless particles except photons into massive particles through the absorption of the Higgs bosons. The absorption of the interuniversal void with zero vacuum energy also started the inflation by converting the high vacuum energy universe into the zero vacuum energy universe. The inflation followed by the Big Bang is a part of the reversible cyclic universe which explains the four force fields (the strong force, gravity, the electromagnetic force, and the weak force) and dark energy. During the Big Bang, the Higgs field and the reverse Higgs field produced the digital space structure consisting of attachment space (the Higgs field) denoted as 1 and detachment space (the reverse Higgs field) denoted as 0.
The Reversible Cyclic Universe in the Reversible Multiverse and the Reversible String Theory  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.69130
Abstract: The paper posits that the multiverse is reversible, so all universes in the multiverse are reversible cyclic universes which have the inexhaustible resources of space-time to expand. The collision of expanding universes is permanently irreversible, forbidden in the reversible multiverse, so every universe is surrounded by the zero-energy interuniversal void as the permanent gap among universes to keep universes apart. A zero-sum energy dual universe of positive energy universe and negative energy universe can be created in the interuniversal void, and the new dual universe is again surrounded by the interuniversal void. This paper also posits the reversible string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number oscillating between 11D (space-time dimension) and 4D without the conventional compactization of string. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light, decreasing vacuum energy, and increasing rest mass. The 4D and the 11D have zero and the highest vacuum energies, respectively. The universes in the reversible multiverse oscillate reversibly between high and low dimension numbers. Under symmetry breaking as in our universe, the positive energy universe as our observed universe absorbed the interuniversal void, while the negative energy universe did not. The interuniversal void has zero vacuum energy, so the absorption of the interuniversal void by the positive energy universe forced the positive energy 10D universe with high vacuum energy to be transformed into the positive energy 4D universe with zero vacuum energy, resulting in the inflation followed by the Big Bang. The negative energy universe undergoes dimension number oscillation between 4D and 10D dimension by dimension. The negative energy >4D universe is hidden, and the negative energy 4D universe appears as dark energy. The calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter and the calculated time for dark energy to start are in good agreements with the observed values.
The Theory of Everything as the Reversibility Theory  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613186
Abstract: In the posited reversibility theory, 1) all physical laws and phenomena are permanently reversible, 2) all physical laws are derived from the reversible M-theory (extension of string theory) in the reversible multiverse, and 3) temporary irreversible entropy increase is allowed through reversibility breaking, symmetry breaking, and low entropy beginning. Dealing with all physical laws and phenomena, the reversibility theory is the theory of everything, including thermodynamic, cosmology, the composition (baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy) in the universe, the periodic table of all elementary particles, the galaxy evolution, superconductivity, and black hole. In the reversible M-theory, space-time dimension number oscillates between 11D (space-time dimension) and 10D and between 10D and 4D. The reversible M-theory includes 11D membrane, 10D string, and variable D particle. Space-time dimension number between 10 and 4 decreases with decreasing speed of light, decreasing vacuum energy, and increasing rest mass. In our dual universe of positive-negative energy universe, the reversible oscillation between 10D with and 4D in the negative energy universe without kinetic energy is the reversible cyclic fractionalization-condensation for the reversible cyclic expansion-contraction of the universe. Without kinetic energy, the individual particles have no individual momenta for entropy increase. The negative energy universe is the locally reversible universe for dark energy. In the positive energy universe where we live, the absorption of the interuniversal void forced the direct transformation from 10D to 4D as the inflation followed by the Big Bang, and created kinetic energy that provided individual momenta for individual particles to produce irreversible entropy increase, resulting in the reversibility breaking of the reversible oscillation. The positive energy universe is the locally irreversible universe. The dual universe as a whole is reversible guided by the reversible negative energy universe. As a result, the irreversible positive energy universe with the irreversible entropy increase is temporary, and will disappear.
The Basic Principles of Kin Sociality and Eusociality: Human Evolution  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.81002
Abstract: The paper posits that kin sociality and eusociality are derived from the handicap-care principles based on the need-based care to the handicappers from the caregivers for the self-interest of the caregivers. In this paper, handicap is defined as the difficulty to survive and reproduce independently. Kin sociality is derived from the childhood handicap-care principle where the children are the handicapped children who receive the care from the kin caregivers in the inclusive kin group to survive. The caregiver gives care for its self-interest to reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of kin sociality contains the handicapped childhood and the caregiving adulthood. Eusociality is derived from the adulthood handicap-care principle where responsible adults are the handicapped adults who give care and receive care at the same time in the interdependent eusocial group to survive and reproduce its gene. Queen bees reproduce, but must receive care from worker bees that work but must rely on queen bees to reproduce. A caregiver gives care for its self-interest to survive and reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of eusociality contains the handicapped childhood-adulthood and the caregiving adulthood. The chronological sequence of the sociality evolution is individual sociality without handicap, kin sociality with handicapped childhood, and eusociality with handicapped adulthood. Eusociality in humans is derived from bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The chronological sequence of the eusocial human evolution is 1) the eusocial early hominins with bipedalism and the mixed habitat, 2) the eusocial early Homo species with bipedalism, the larger brain, and the open habitat, 3) the eusocial late Homo species with bipedalism, the largest brain, and the unstable habitat, and 4) extended eusocial Homo sapiens with bipedalism, the shrinking brain, omnipresent imagination, and the harsh habitat. The omnipresence of imagination in human culture converts eusociality into extended eusociality with both perception and omnipresent imagination.
Human Religious Evolution  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.43013
Abstract: This paper posits that human religious evolution is derived from individual vulnerability, the sacred guardian-community-contract, the technological revolutions, and the worldview-sociality model. The paper posits that religion emerged when the vulnerable humans turned to the super-natural as the sacred guardian for help during the harsh Upper Paleolithic Period about forty thousand years ago. The paper posits that religions have evolved with the technological revolutions. The Upper Paleolithic Revolution was produced by religion. After the Agricultural Revolution, the simple sacred guardian in Upper Paleolithic Period was transformed into the sacred guardian- contract as the explicit obligation between the sacred guardian and the human society to maintain the social order in the sacred agricultural-nomadic society. Science, individualism, and pluralism in the Industrial Revolution brought back the secular, resulting in the sacred-secular coexistence in the separate sacred-secular industrial society. The closely interacting information generated by the Information Revolution starts the process unifying the sacred and the secular in the unified interdependent sacred-secular information society. The five periods of human religious evolution based on the technological revolutions are the eusocial secular period started by original Homo sapiens without significant religious practices, the eusocial sacred guardian-community period started from the Upper Paleolithic Revolution, the sacred guardian-community-contract period started by the Agricultural Revolution, the sacred-secular period started by the Industrial Revolution, and the unified interdependent period started by the Information Revolution. This paper posits that the current major religions can be defined by the worldview-sociality model consisting two worldviews (competitive and connective) and three socialities (individualistic, collectivistic, and interdependent as eusocial) derived from the Evolution Equation for the biological evolution based on self-interest, adaptation, and competition. The competitive collectivistic religions are Judaism and Islam. The competitive individualistic religions are Greek individualism and Islam. The connective individualistic-collectivistic religions are Hinduism and Confucianism. The interdependent (eusocial) religions are Buddhism, Daoism, and Christianity.
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