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We recently reported that L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AP) stimulates the growth of human dermal papilla (DP) cells, induces secretion of IGF-1 from the DP cells to promote hair shafts elongation in cultured human hair follicles, and triggers early progression from the telogen to anagen phase in mice. Since the magnesium salt of AP (APMg) is a highly hydrophilic ionic molecule, it is not easy to deliver this reagent to the skin or hair follicles by topical application alone. In order to enhance skin penetration of APMg without changing any molecular properties, a non-invasive iontophoretic delivery method was introduced. Iontophoresis of the negatively charged APMg under the electrode bearing same charge (cathode) significantly enhanced the in vitro penetration of APMg into a Franz cell equipped with mouse dorsal skin. In contrast, iontophoretic movement with the anode inhibited APMg penetration achieved with passive diffusion alone. The effect of iontophoresis on enhancing the penetration of APMg was also found to be much higher in the skin of hairy mice (3 - 8 times) compared to hairless mice (1.5 - 2.5 times). These findings indicated that iontophoretic movement induced the transfollicular pathway more strongly and effectively than the transdermal pathway. This phenomena was also demonstrated by the in vivo iontophoretic delivery of sodium fluorescein using hairy and hairless mice. The degree of iontophoretic enhancement during APMg penetration was also dependent on various conditions such as current density and application duration.
Ovarian cancer is the most aggressive
gynecologic cancer of the heterogenous phenotypes. Development of the new
chemotherapeutic agents and drug delivery mode makes better outcomes for
patient treatments. Optimal cytoreductive therapy followed by molecular
targeting therapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and dose dense chemotherapy is
a hot therapeutic concept in ovarian cancers. In our review, we will introduce
recent therapeutic advances in epithelial ovarian cancer patients.
Tailgut cyst, also
called retrorectal hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion and is usually
located anterior to the sacrum and posterior to the rectum. We report a case
of double tailgut cyst (presacral and precoccygeal hamartoma). A 62-year- old
female visited the hospital complaining of anal pain and pressure in the
perianal area for one month. Digital rectal examination revealed a round mass
with hard consistency in the lateral and posterior part of rectum 5 cm from the
anal verge. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed two cystic and solid presacral masses (lateral and posterior part of
rectum) compressing the rectum. The patient underwent surgical resection for
pathologic diagnosis. At operation, two masses were located in the left
presacral space without invasion to adjacent organs and soft tissue. Pathologic
examination revealed double tailgut cysts without malignant transformation. A differential diagnosis of perirectal cystic hamartoma includes epidermal cysts, cystic teratomas, dermoid cysts, anal
gland cysts, sarcoma and rectal duplications.
Regional inflammatory process frequently complicates this lesion and
perirectal fistula can develop. Tailgut cyst also has a malignancy potential, with development of adenocarcinomas. To establish a definite diagnosis and prevent complication, complete surgical resection is recommended.