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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44703 matches for " You-Lin Tain "
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Roles of Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Pregnancy and Fetal Programming
Li-Tung Huang,Chih-Sung Hsieh,Kow-Aung Chang,You-Lin Tain
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114606
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) regulates placental blood flow and actively participates in trophoblast invasion and placental development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can inhibit NO synthase, which generates NO. ADMA has been associated with uterine artery flow disturbances such as preeclampsia. Substantial experimental evidence has reliably supported the hypothesis that an adverse in utero environment plays a role in postnatal physiological and pathophysiological programming. Growing evidence suggests that the placental nitrergic system is involved in epigenetic fetal programming. In this review, we discuss the roles of NO and ADMA in normal and compromised pregnancies as well as the link between placental insufficiency and epigenetic fetal programming.
Sensory Dysfunction of Bladder Mucosa and Bladder Oversensitivity in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome
Wei-Chia Lee, Po-Hui Chiang, You-Lin Tain, Chia-Ching Wu, Yao-Chi Chuang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045578
Abstract: Purpose To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60%) or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs) were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO). Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) solution (5mM, pH 3.3) was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. Results Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. Conclusions Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.
Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies
Yu-Chieh Chen,Jiunn-Ming Sheen,Miao-Meng Tiao,You-Lin Tain,Li-Tung Huang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14035380
Abstract: Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms.
Scattering of a Plane Wave by an Anisotropic Plasma-Coated Conducting Sphere
You-Lin Geng
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/409764
Abstract: The electromagnetic field in homogeneous plasma anisotropic medium can be expressed as the addition of the first and second spherical vector wave functions in plasma anisotropic medium. The tangential electromagnetic fields are continued in the boundary between the homogeneous plasma anisotropic medium and free space, and the tangential electrical field is zero in the surface of conducting sphere. The coefficients of electromagnetic fields in plasma anisotropic medium expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions in plasma anisotropic medium are derived, and then the coefficients of scattering fields in terms of spherical vector functions in free space can be obtained. Numerical results between this paper and hybrid finite element-boundary integral-multilevel fast multipole algorithm (FE-BI-MLFMA) are given, and they are in agreement very well. Some new numerical results of a plane wave scattering by an anisotropic plasma-coated conducting sphere are obtained. 1. Introduction Plasma represents a medium of gas in highly ionized state, and it is a neutral mixture of free ions, electrons, and molecules. For example, when the ionosphere and the sheath of satellite and missile come into atmosphere, they are considered to be plasma in nature. When there is an externally applied magnetic field, a plasma exhibits anisotropic behavior and its permittivity takes a tensor form. The elements of the permittivity tensor are complex functions of wave, plasma, gyro and collision frequencies [1–3]. Wave propagation in, and scattering by, an anisotropic medium is nonreciprocal, and its analysis becomes very difficult even when the plasma is treated as an incompressible gas [1–4]. The interaction between electromagnetic wave and anisotropic medium has attracted much interest. It is simply because there are many natural and artificial anisotropic materials, and they are frequently used in optical signal processing (such as constructing signal processing elements at optical frequencies), the radar cross-section control for various objects or scatterers, antennas or airborne radomes, optical fibers, developments of certain types of radar absorbers, and high-performance microstrip antenna designs where the substrates of this nature are desirable. One of the basic problems in investigating waves in anisotropic media is to accurately and efficiently characterize electromagnetic scattering. Scattering by homogeneous anisotropic objects has attracted considerable interests in recent years. Numerical methods based on integral equations [5] as well as differential equations
Mie Scattering by a Conducting Sphere Coated Uniaxial Single-Negative Medium
You-Lin Geng
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/856476
Mie Scattering by a Conducting Sphere Coated Uniaxial Single-Negative Medium
You-Lin Geng
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/856476
Abstract: We propose an accurate analytical method to compute the electromagnetic scattering from three-dimensional (3D) conducting sphere coated uniaxial anisotropic single-negative (SNG) medium. Based on the spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs) in uniaxial anisotropic medium, the electromagnetic field in homogeneous uniaxial SNG medium and free space can be expressed by the SVWFs in uniaxial SNG medium and free space. The continued boundary conditions of electromagnetic fields between the uniaxial SNG medium and free space are applied, and the tangential electrical field is vanished in the surface of conducting sphere, the coefficients of scattering fields in free space can be derived, and then the character of scattering of conducting sphere coated homogeneous uniaxial SNG medium can be obtained. Some numericals are given in the end. 1. Introduction Recently, the development of metamaterials, which was first introduced by Veselago in 1968 [1], has attracted more and more attention in the physical and engineering communities. Metamaterials, which are a kind of new artificial media, have been studied intensively since the concept of perfect lenses was proposed by Pendry in 2000 [2] and the negative index of refraction was experimentally verified by Smith et al. in 2001 [3]. Another breakthrough in metamaterials happened in 2006, when a method for controlling electromagnetic (EM) fields was proposed using inhomogeneous and anisotropic metamaterials [4] and the reduced invisible cloak was successfully realized using metamaterials at microwave frequencies [5]. Since then, more and more researchers have investigated the properties and applications of anisotropic metamaterials. The EM scattering problem for penetrable objects is very important to study material properties and arbitrary dielectric lenses. There are many classical methods for analysing traditional two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) dielectric scattering problems [6–11]. In recent years, there have also been many theoretical investigations on the study of EM characteristics for double-negative (DNG) media [12–15], where both the permittivity and permeability are negative. However, “single-negative” (SNG) materials in which only one of the material parameters, not both, has a negative real value may also possess interesting properties when they are paired in a conjugate manner. These media include the epsilon-negative (ENG) media, in which the real part of permittivity is negative, but the real permeability is positive, and the mu-negative (MNG) media, in which the real part of
Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Associated with Developmental Programming of Adult Kidney Disease and Hypertension in Offspring of Streptozotocin-Treated Mothers
You-Lin Tain, Wen-Chin Lee, Chien-Ning Hsu, Wei-Chia Lee, Li-Tung Huang, Chien-Te Lee, Ching-Yuang Lin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055420
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus complicates pregnancies, leading to diseases in adult life in the offspring. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is increased in diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, and hypertension. We tested whether maternal diabetes causes increased ADMA in rats, resulting in kidney disease and hypertension in the adult offspring, and whether these can be prevented by maternal citrulline supplementation. Newborn female and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ), which made up the nSTZ and STZ models, respectively. For the STZ model, 4 groups of male offspring were killed at age 3 months: the control, STZ, and Cit and STZ+Cit (control and STZ rats treated with 0.25% l-citrulline solution, respectively) groups. The nSTZ rats had lower nephron numbers. The renal level of ADMA was higher in the nSTZ rats than in controls. The STZ group developed kidney injury, renal hypertrophy, and elevated blood pressure at the age of 12 weeks. These conditions were found to be associated with increased ADMA levels, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production, and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity in the kidney. In addition, ADMA caused a nephron deficit in cultured rat metanephroi. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevented hypertension and kidney injury, increased the renal DDAH-2 protein level, and restored the levels of ADMA and NO in the STZ+Cit group. Reduced nephron number and increased ADMA contribute to adult kidney disease and hypertension in offspring of mothers with STZ-induced diabetes. Manipulation of the ADMA-NO pathway by citrulline supplementation may be a potential approach to prevent these conditions.
A New Lagrangian Multiplier Method on Constrained Optimization  [PDF]
You-Lin Shang, Sheng-Li Guo, Xiang-Yi Jiang
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.330198
Abstract: In this paper, a new augmented Lagrangian function with 4-piecewise linear NCP function is introduced for solving nonlinear programming problems with equality constrained and inequality constrained. It is proved that a solution of the original constrained problem and corresponding values of Lagrange multipliers can be found by solving an unconstrained minimization of the augmented Lagrange function. Meanwhile, a new Lagrangian multiplier method corresponding with new augmented Lagrangian function is proposed. And this method is implementable and convergent.
Simulation study of the two-time intensity correlationfunction of a two-mode laser system with both pump and quantumnoises

Xiang You-Lin,Mei Dong-Cheng,

中国物理 B , 2010,
Abstract: This paper investigates the two-time intensity correlation function of a two-mode ring laser system subjected to both pump and quantum noises by stochastic simulation. It finds that the decay rate of the intensity correlation function of one mode gets faster with decreasing values of relevant parameters, i.e., the coupling constant $\xi $, the cross-correlation coefficient $\lambda $, the difference of the pump parameters $\Delta a$ and the pump parameter $a_1 $; however, its variations get complex in the other mode when relevant parameters are changed. The investigating results also show that the effects of the mode competition on intensity correlation function are obvious.
Characteristics of Polysilicon Wire Glucose Sensors with a Surface Modified by Silica Nanoparticles/γ-APTES Nanocomposite
Jing-Jenn Lin,Po-Yen Hsu,You-Lin Wu,Jheng-Jia Jhuang
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110302796
Abstract: This report investigates the sensing characteristics of polysilicon wire (PSW) glucose biosensors, including thickness characteristics and line-width effects on detection limits, linear range and interference immunity with membranes coated by micropipette/spin-coating and focus-ion-beam (FIB) processed capillary atomic-force-microscopy (C-AFM) tip scan/coating methods. The PSW surface was modified with a mixture of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (γ-APTES) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-treated hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles (NPs). We found that the thickness of the γ-APTES+NPs nonocomposite could be controlled well at about 22 nm with small relative standard deviation (RSD) with repeated C-AFM tip scan/coatings. The detection limit increased and linear range decreased with the line width of the PSW through the tip-coating process. Interestingly, the interference immunity ability improves as the line width increases. For a 500 nm-wide PSW, the percentage changes of the channel current density changes (ΔJ) caused by acetaminophen (AP) can be kept below 3.5% at an ultra-high AP-to-glucose concentration ratio of 600:1. Simulation results showed that the line width dependence of interference immunity was strongly correlated with the channel electrical field of the PSW biosensor.
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