Abstract:
Upon passing an a.c. electrical current along magnetic micro- or nanostrips, the measurement of a d.c. voltage that depends sensitively on current frequency and applied field has been recently reported by A. Yamaguchi and coworkers. It was attributed to the excitation of spin waves by the spin transfer torque, leading to a time-varying anisotropic magnetoresistance and, by mixing of a.c. current and resistance, to a d.c. voltage. We have performed a quantitative analysis by micromagnetics, including the spin transfer torque terms considered usually, of this situation. The signals found from the spin transfer torque effect are several orders of magnitude below the experimental values, even if a static inhomogeneity of magnetization (the so-called ripple) is taken into account. On the other hand, the presence of a small non-zero average Oersted field is shown to be consistent with the full set of experimental results, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We examine, quantitatively, several sources for this average field and point to the contacts to the sample as a likely origin.

Abstract:
We report on the switching of the magnetic vortex core in a Pac-man disk using a magnetic field pulse, investigated via micromagnetic simulations. The minimum core switching field is reduced by 72 % compared to that of a circular disk with the same diameter and thickness. However, the core switches irregularly with respect to both the field pulse amplitude and duration. This irregularity is induced by magnetization oscillations which arise due to excitation of the spin waves when the core annihilates. We show that the core switching can be controlled with the assist magnetic field and by changing the waveform.

Abstract:
In a ferromagnetic nanodisk, the magnetization tends to swirl around in the plane of the disk and can point either up or down at the center of this magnetic vortex. This binary state can be useful for information storage. It is demonstrated that a single nanosecond current pulse can switch the core polarity. This method also provides the precise control of the core direction, which constitutes fundamental technology for realizing a vortex core memory.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamics of a magnetic vortex driven by spin-transfer torque due to spin current in the adiabatic case. The vortex core represented by collective coordinate experiences a transverse force proportional to the product of spin current and gyrovector, which can be interpreted as the geometric force determined by topological charges. We show that this force is just a reaction force of Lorentz-type force from the spin current of conduction electrons. Based on our analyses, we propose analytically and numerically a possible experiment to check the vortex displacement by spin current in the case of single magnetic nanodot.

Abstract:
A magnetic vortex core in a ferromagnetic circular nanodot has a resonance frequency originating from the confinement of the vortex core. By the micromagnetic simulation including the spin-transfer torque, we show that the vortex core can be resonantly excited by an AC (spin-polarized) current through the dot and that the resonance frequency can be tuned by the dot shape. The resistance measurement under the AC current successfully detects the resonance at the frequency consistent with the simulation.

Abstract:
We propose a theoretical model of magnetization switching in a ferromagnetic multilayer by both electric current and microwaves. The electric current gives a spin transfer torque on the magnetization, while the microwave induces a precession of the magnetization around the initial state. Based on numerical simulation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, it is found that the switching current is reduced by less than a half compared with the switching caused solely by the spin transfer torque when the microwave frequency is in a certain range. We develop a theory of switching from the LLG equation averaged over a constant energy curve. It was found that the switching current should be classified into four regions, depending on the values of the microwave frequency. Based on the analysis, we derive an analytical formula of the optimized frequency minimizing the switching current, which is smaller than the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. We also derive an analytical formula of the minimized switching current. Both the optimized frequency and the minimized switching current decreases with increasing the amplitude of the microwave field. The results will be useful to achieve high thermal stability and low switching current in spin torque system simultaneously.

Abstract:
A magnetic vortex is a curling magnetic structure realized in a ferromagnetic disk, which is a promising candidate of a memory cell for future nonvolatile data storage devices. Thus, understanding of the stability and dynamical behaviour of the magnetic vortex is a major requirement for developing magnetic data storage technology. Since the experimental proof of the existence of a nanometre-scale core with out-of-plane magnetisation in the magnetic vortex, the dynamics of a vortex has been investigated intensively. However, the way to electrically control the core magnetisation, which is a key for constructing a vortex core memory, has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate the electrical switching of the core magnetisation by utilizing the current-driven resonant dynamics of the vortex; the core switching is triggered by a strong dynamic field which is produced locally by a rotational core motion at a high speed of several hundred m/s. Efficient switching of the vortex core without magnetic field application is achieved thanks to resonance. This opens up the potentiality of a simple magnetic disk as a building block for spintronic devices like a memory cell where the bit data is stored as the direction of the nanometre-scale core magnetisation.

Abstract:
Spin-polarized radio frequency (RF) currents and RF-Oersted fields resonantly excite a magnetic vortex core confined in a micron-scale soft magnetic disk. In this study, we measured the rectifying voltage spectra caused by the anisotropic magnetoresistance oscillation due to the gyration of the vortex with different polarity and chirality. The measured spectra are presented such that we can determine the vortex properties and strength of the spin torques and Oersted field accurately and directly through analytical calculation.

Abstract:
Transmission probability of a domain wall through a magnetic nanowire is investigated as a function of the external magnetic field. Very intriguing phenomenon is found that the transmission probability shows a significant drop after exceeding the threshold driving field, which contradicts our intuition that a domain wall is more mobile in the higher magnetic field. The micromagnetics simulation reveals that the domain wall motion in the wire with finite roughness causes the dynamical pinning due to the Walker breakdown, which semi-quantitatively explains our experimental results.

Abstract:
Threshold current of domain wall motion under spin-polarized electric current in ferromagnets is theoretically studied based on the equation of motion of a wall in terms of collective coordinates. Effects of non-adiabaticity and a so-called $\beta$-term in Landau-Lifshitz equation, which are described by the same term in the equation of motion of a wall, are taken into account as well as extrinsic pinning. It is demonstrated that there are four different regimes characterized by different dependence of threshold on extrinsic pinning, hard-axis magnetic anisotropy, non-adiabaticity and $\beta$.