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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 262 matches for " Yoshinobu Manome "
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Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial DNAs of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1(COI) Regions in Slow Lorises (Genus Nycticebus) May Contribute to Improved Identification of Confiscated Specimens
Hiroko Somura,Hiroshi Hori,Yoshinobu Manome
ISRN Zoology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/498731
Abstract: The slow loris (Nycticebus) is a prosimian that is popular among exotic pet lovers. In Japan, many slow lorises have been imported illegally. Prosimians that have been confiscated in raids are protected in Japanese zoos, and the number of such animals has increased. In most cases, the country of origin remains unknown and even the species can be difficult to identify from the animal’s physical appearance alone. We have attempted to resolve this problem by using DNA analysis. DNA samples of five species, consisting of the Pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus), and Bornean slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis), were extracted, amplified, and the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1(COI) regions were compared. Differences of nucleic acid sequences of representative individuals were demonstrated. 1. Introduction The slow loris, named after its slow movements in trees, is a small nocturnal arboreal primate that lives in south and south-east Asia, and a part of China. At present, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) classifies these animals into 5 species. Typically, N. pygmaeus inhabits Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. N. bengalensis inhabits Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. N. coucang inhabits Thailand, Malaysia (Malay Peninsula, Pulau Island, and Tioman Island), Singapore, and Indonesia. N. menagensis inhabits Malaysia (Borneo) and Indonesia (Kalimantan). N. javanicus inhabits Indonesia (Java) (Figure 1). The IUCN also reports that N. bengalensis inhabits Malaysia and that N. pygmaeus can be found in China; moreover, the number of animals is decreasing [1]. Figure 1: Distribution of Slow Loris species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) classifies the Slow Loris into 5 species. Distribution of Pygmy Slow Loris ( Nycticebus pygmaeus), Bengal Slow Loris ( Nycticebus bengalensis), Sunda Slow Loris ( Nycticebus coucang), Javan Slow Loris ( Nycticebus javanicus), and Bornean Slow Loris ( Nycticebus menagensis) are as demonstrated. The prosimian body has been used in traditional Asian medicines. The animals have also been captured for use as pets. Their large eyes, small body size, and quiet nature are the main reasons behind the high demand for slow lorises as pets. In addition, there has been an increasing loss of habitat due to the development of
Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Cultured Central Nervous System Cells  [PDF]
Yuriko Inoue, Hiromitsu Ezure, Junji Ito, Chika Sawa, Masato Yamamoto, Harumi Hata, Hiroshi Moriyama, Yoshinobu Manome, Naruhito Otsuka
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2018.82013
Abstract: Nanotechnology is developing rapidly and the production of novel man-made nanoparticles is increasing. However, the effects of these particles on human health are unevaluated. Depending on particle size and the surface properties, nanoparticles may have the potential to affect human health. In recent studies, several silica nanoparticles (<100 nm) were shown to be penetrating into the brain. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of these nanoparticles on the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the toxicological influence of nanoparticles on cortical cultured neurons isolated from embryonic day 18 Wister rats. Cortical cultured neurons at 21 days in vitro (DIV) were treated with 30 nm silica nanoparticles for 1 hr. Many neurons were damaged immediately more than at 0.01 mg/ml concentration of silica. Cell damage was also assessed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay. We revealed that the Neuro-toxicological mechanisms were due to membrane permeability. It was suggested that cell membrane permeability was enhanced because of ROS generation. Given these results, it will be important to determine the effect of nano-silica particles in vivo and identify the extent of neuronal damage.
Clinical Perspectives of Urocortin and Related Agents for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease
Keiichi Ikeda,Kouki Fujioka,Yoshinobu Manome,Katsuyoshi Tojo
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/198628
Abstract: The effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone, also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), on the cardiovascular system have been intensively researched since its discovery. Moreover, the actions of urocortin (Ucn) I on the cardiovascular system have also been intensively scrutinized following the cloning and identification of its receptor, CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2), in peripheral tissues including the heart. Given the cardioprotective actions of CRFR2 ligands, the clinical potential of not only Ucn I but also Ucn II and III, which were later identified as more specific ligands for CRFR2, has received considerable attention from researchers. In addition, recent work has indicated that CRF type 1 receptor may be also involved in cardioprotection against ischemic/reperfusion injury. Here we provide a historical overview of research on Ucn I and related agents, their effects on the cardiovascular system, and the clinical potential of the use of such agents to treat cardiovascular diseases. 1. Introduction: Overview of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Related Peptides and Their Effects on the Cardiovascular System Since the discovery of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin, several studies have revealed that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) affects the cardiovascular system, although the CRF receptors involved in this process had not been identified [1–9]. In 1995, a major breakthrough in research on the effects of CRF-related peptides on the cardiovascular system took place with the cloning and identification of the CRF type 2 receptor (CRFR2) in peripheral tissues including the cardiovascular system [10–14]. This finding indicated that CRF and related peptides may affect the heart and vascular tissues. In addition, urocortin (Ucn) I, which was later recognized as a key CRF peptide in the heart, was also identified in rat mid brain tissue [15], while Ucn I mRNA, but not CRF, was identified in cardiomyocytes [16]. Several studies revealed that stimulation of CRFR2 by CRF and Ucn I induced the release of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP, resp.) [17, 18], which are used as the indicators of cardiac hypertrophy [19] and, in another hand, have an antihypertrophic action [20], had a positive inotropic action on the heart [21], increased protein and DNA synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts [18, 22, 23], and exerted a cardioprotective action against hypoxia [16, 24, 25]. Ucn I immunoreactivity has also been identified in normal and diseased human heart, especially in the hearts of
Suppression of Aldosterone Synthesis and Secretion by Channel Antagonists
Keiichi Ikeda,Tsuyoshi Isaka,Kouki Fujioka,Yoshinobu Manome,Katsuyoshi Tojo
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/519467
Abstract: Aldosterone, a specific mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonist and a key player in the development of hypertension, is synthesized as a final product of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Hypertension can be generally treated by negating the effects of angiotensin II through the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs). However, the efficacy of angiotensin II blockade by such drugs is sometimes diminished by the so-called “aldosterone breakthrough” effect, by which ACE-Is or ARBs (renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors) gradually lose their effectiveness against hypertension due to the overproduction of aldosterone, known as primary aldosteronism. Although MR antagonists are used to antagonize the effects of aldosterone, these drugs may, however, give rise to life-threatening adverse actions, such as hyperkalemia, particularly when used in conjunction with RAS inhibitors. Recently, several groups have reported that some dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs) have inhibitory actions on aldosterone production in in vitro and in the clinical setting. Therefore, the use of such dihydropyridine CCBs to treat aldosterone-related hypertension may prove beneficial to circumvent such therapeutic problems. In this paper, we discuss the mechanism of action of CCBs on aldosterone production and clinical perspectives for CCB use to inhibit MR activity in hypertensive patients. 1. Introduction Aldosterone is an endogenous mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonist synthesized in the adrenal glomerular layer as a final product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); it is strongly involved in the development of hypertension due to excessive sodium retention. It has been reported that suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) provides an effective treatment against cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and cardiac failure [1, 2]. Several studies have also revealed that the blockade of MR by an MR antagonist (MRA), such as spironolactone or eplerenone, offers an effective approach to treat cardiac disease, especially cardiac failure [3–6]. These facts indicate that RAAS may contribute to the underlying mechanisms of cardiac diseases for which its control may play a critical role in ameliorating the effectiveness of treatments [7]. Although the blockade of RAS by ACE-Is or ARBs (RAS inhibitors) may be effective, the long-term treatment of hypertension by drugs
Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee
Kouki Fujioka,Yasuko Tomizawa,Nobuo Shimizu,Keiichi Ikeda,Yoshinobu Manome
Sensors , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/s150101354
Abstract: Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma ( i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses.
Combination of Real-Value Smell and Metaphor Expression Aids Yeast Detection
Kouki Fujioka,Eiji Arakawa,Jun-ichi Kita,Yoshihiro Aoyama,Toshiro Okuda,Yoshinobu Manome,Kenji Yamamoto
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007939
Abstract: Smell provides important information about the quality of food and drink. Most well-known for their expertise in wine tasting, sommeliers sniff out the aroma of wine and describe them using beautiful metaphors. In contrast, electronic noses, devices that mimic our olfactory recognition system, also detect smells using their sensors but describe them using electronic signals. These devices have been used to judge the freshness of food or detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. However, unlike information from gas chromatography, it is difficult to compare odour information collected by these devices because they are made for smelling specific smells and their data are relative intensities.
Tetrahydrouridine Inhibits Cell Proliferation through Cell Cycle Regulation Regardless of Cytidine Deaminase Expression Levels
Naotake Funamizu, Curtis Ray Lacy, Kaori Fujita, Kenei Furukawa, Takeyuki Misawa, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Yoshinobu Manome
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037424
Abstract: Tetrahydrouridine (THU) is a well characterized and potent inhibitor of cytidine deaminase (CDA). Highly expressed CDA catalyzes and inactivates cytidine analogues, ultimately contributing to increased gemcitabine resistance. Therefore, a combination therapy of THU and gemcitabine is considered to be a potential and promising treatment for tumors with highly expressed CDA. In this study, we found that THU has an alternative mechanism for inhibiting cell growth which is independent of CDA expression. Three different carcinoma cell lines (MIAPaCa-2, H441, and H1299) exhibited decreased cell proliferation after sole administration of THU, while being unaffected by knocking down CDA. To investigate the mechanism of THU-induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry was performed. This analysis revealed that THU caused an increased rate of G1-phase occurrence while S-phase occurrence was diminished. Similarly, Ki-67 staining further supported that THU reduces cell proliferation. We also found that THU regulates cell cycle progression at the G1/S checkpoint by suppressing E2F1. As a result, a combination regimen of THU and gemcitabine might be a more effective therapy than previously believed for pancreatic carcinoma since THU works as a CDA inhibitor, as well as an inhibitor of cell growth in some types of pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System
Kouki Fujioka,Yasuhiro Futamura,Tomoo Shiohara,Akiyoshi Hoshino,Fumihide Kanaya,Yoshinobu Manome,Kenji Yamamoto
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10062722
Abstract: Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.
Detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in Liquid Media by Volatile Production Similarity Patterns, Using a FF-2A Electronic Nose
Kouki Fujioka,Eiji Arakawa,Jun-ichi Kita,Yoshihiro Aoyama,Yoshinobu Manome,Keiichi Ikeda,Kenji Yamamoto
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130100736
Abstract: A technique for rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms is essential for the diagnosis of associated infections and for food safety analysis. Aeromonas hydrophila is one such food contaminant. Several methods for rapid detection of this pathogen have been developed; these include multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays and the colony overlay procedure for peptidases. However, these conventional methods can only be used to detect the microorganisms at high accuracy after symptomatic onset of the disease. Therefore, in the future, simple pre-screening methods may be useful for preventing food poisoning and disease. In this paper, we present a novel system for the rapid detection of the microorganism A. hydrophila in cultured media (in <2 h), with the use of an electronic nose (FF-2A). With this electronic nose, we detected the changes of volatile patterns produced by A. hydrophila after 30 min culture. Our calculations revealed that the increased volatiles were similar to the odours of organic acids and esters. In future, distinctive volatile production patterns of microorganisms identified with the electronic nose may have the potential in microorganism detection.
Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation
Kouki Fujioka,Nobuo Shimizu,Yoshinobu Manome,Keiichi Ikeda,Kenji Yamamoto,Yasuko Tomizawa
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s131115532
Abstract: Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1) using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2) performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score); and (3) selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle ( Flammulina velutipes), white mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus), shiitake ( Lentinus edodes), and eryngii ( Pleurotus eryngii) among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods ( Grifola frondosa), shimeji ( Hypsizygus marmoreus) plus the above mushrooms). Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.
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