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Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), as a non-invasive neuroimaging technique, was used to monitor the activation of prefrontal lobe on human brain during sweet taste processing. The primary aim of the present study was to find the region of interest (ROI) which is related to sweetness, and make further understanding of the central organization of taste. Based on event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 volunteers by sweet taste stimulus. It was confirmed that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in sweet taste processing and fNIRS provided an alternative way for studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions. This study might be effective for detecting the accession area in the cortex of sweet taste and helpful for studying on human feeding and taste disease like taste dyspepsia or disorder.
The aim of the study was to investigate the
representation of taste in human prefrontal cortex (PFC), in particular, to
compare the representation of a pleasant and an aversive taste using functional
near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), so as to obtain further understanding of
the taste preference mechanism. The pleasant stimulus used was sweet taste (10%
sucrose), and the unpleasant stimulus was sour taste (1% critic acid). Based on
event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 healthy
volunteers using the OEG-16 fNIRS sensor. A general linear model was used to
analyze the collected data. For the concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin
(ΔoxyHb), we found that significant deactivation
was induced by sweetness and sourness in parts of the frontopolar area,
orbitofrontal area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in bilateral hemisphere
of human brain. And the right PFC showed different levels of activation between
sweetness and sourness. In addition, brain activities were more sensitive to
sourness than sweetness. Finally, we confirmed that the PFC was involved in
sweet and sour taste processing, and fNIRS provided an alternative way for
studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions.
It is important for the relocated elderly to create social networks within their new environment for their lives and their health. This research examined the reasons why the relocated elderly create social networks in the neighborhood. The research subject area is one snowfall town in Hokkaido, Japan. The subjects are 20 elderly people, who have been relocated to the town. The public health nurses individually conducted an interview and broke down the verbatim records into qualitative descriptions. The subjects ranged from 68 to 94 years old. Reasons why the elderly create social networks in their neighborhoods are to make their lives easier, to prepare for emergencies, to get rid of their loneliness, and to enjoy their lives. Community health providers should understand the need for neighboring social networks based on the elderly people’s condition, and support and create new networks in their community depending on their situations.