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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2504 matches for " Yoshiko Kato "
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Relationship between Taste Sensitivity and Eating Style in Japanese Female University Students  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kato, Roswith Roth
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33044
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, the frequency and the preference for eating foods rich in zinc, dietary habits, and restrained eating among Japanese female undergraduate students. Forty-three subjects be-tween the ages of 20 and 22 participated in this study. After a taste-sensitivity test for sweetness and saltiness the stu-dents completed a food list indicating the intake frequency and preference of foods rich in zinc and their eating habits. The students were divided into four groups: high salt-taste sensitivity (SA-HG), low salt-taste sensitivity (SA-LG), high sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-HG), and low sweet-taste sensitivity (SW-LG). Individuals in the SA-HG group ate more foods rich in zinc and were more concerned with their health than those in the SA-LG group. Further, the SW-LG group ate more convenience foods than the SW-HG group. High salt-taste sensitivity could be predicted by eating more but less preference of foods rich in zinc, less snacking, and greater regularity of meals. On the other hand there is a signifi-cant positive relationship between the frequencies of eating and preference for foods rich in zinc. This means the results were inconsistent, further research is needed to clarify this point.
An fNIRS Research on Prefrontal Cortex Activity Response to Pleasant Taste  [PDF]
Chenghong Hu, Yoshiko Kato, Zhiwei Luo
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.38065

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), as a non-invasive neuroimaging technique, was used to monitor the activation of prefrontal lobe on human brain during sweet taste processing. The primary aim of the present study was to find the region of interest (ROI) which is related to sweetness, and make further understanding of the central organization of taste. Based on event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 volunteers by sweet taste stimulus. It was confirmed that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in sweet taste processing and fNIRS provided an alternative way for studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions. This study might be effective for detecting the accession area in the cortex of sweet taste and helpful for studying on human feeding and taste disease like taste dyspepsia or disorder.


Activation of Human Prefrontal Cortex to Pleasant and Aversive Taste Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy  [PDF]
Chenghong Hu, Zhiwei Luo, Yoshiko Kato
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52029

The aim of the study was to investigate the representation of taste in human prefrontal cortex (PFC), in particular, to compare the representation of a pleasant and an aversive taste using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), so as to obtain further understanding of the taste preference mechanism. The pleasant stimulus used was sweet taste (10% sucrose), and the unpleasant stimulus was sour taste (1% critic acid). Based on event-related design, the experiments were performed with 16 healthy volunteers using the OEG-16 fNIRS sensor. A general linear model was used to analyze the collected data. For the concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔoxyHb), we found that significant deactivation was induced by sweetness and sourness in parts of the frontopolar area, orbitofrontal area and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in bilateral hemisphere of human brain. And the right PFC showed different levels of activation between sweetness and sourness. In addition, brain activities were more sensitive to sourness than sweetness. Finally, we confirmed that the PFC was involved in sweet and sour taste processing, and fNIRS provided an alternative way for studying taste-related brain function under more natural conditions.

Psychometric Validation of the Motivation for Healthy Eating Scale (MHES)  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kato, Makoto Iwanaga, Roswith Roth, Tomoko Hamasaki, Elfriede Greimel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.42020
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Japanese version of the Motivation for Healthy Eating Scale (MHES), a modified version of the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale that assesses the motivational orientation toward healthy dietary regulation. In the first study, a sample of 490 female Japanese undergraduate students completed the MHES. In the second study, 357 female undergraduate students completed the Balanced Diet Scale (BDS), and Subjective Health Status Questionnaire (SHSQ) in addition to the MHES. The MEHS showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity as measured by correlation with scores on the BDS and SHSQ. Psychometric analyses of the MEHS revealed a six-factor scale structure. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ranged from .72 to .84 (Intrinsic motivation: .80, Integrated regulation: .82, Identified regulation: .84, Introjected regulation: .73, External regulation: .77, and Amotivation: .72). Concerning criterion validity, autonomous regulation was positively associated with BDS scores, whereas controlled regulation was negatively associated with SHSQ scores. The results indicate good psychometric properties for the Japanese version of the MHES. It might be confirmed that fostering autonomous regulation lead healthy eating habits and enhance subjective health.
Brain Response to Aversive Taste for Investigating Taste Preference  [PDF]
Chenghong Hu, Yoshitada Katagiri, Yoshiko Kato, Zhiwei Luo
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.41006
Abstract: To clarify the intrinsic food preference mechanism, we investigated brain neurophysiological responses to unpleasant gustatory stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) and near-infrared hemoencepalogram (NIR-HEG) simultaneously. A conventional delayed response task based on Go/Nogo paradigm was adopted to extract real brain response components from spontaneous background signals. We found excessive evoked EEG potential responses to both bitter and sour stimuli, while we didn’t find excessive changes in purified water condition. These potentials appeared before P3, hence, they potentially predicted unconscious attention to the gustatory stimuli. We also identified a late contingent negative variation (CNV) and corresponding P3 for sour stimulus. In addition, NIR-HEG responses showed relative changes for every stimulus and w
Psychometric Validation of Exercise Motivation for Health Scale (EMHS)  [PDF]
Chenghong Hu, Ami Kojima, Urusla Athenstaedt, Yoshiko Kato
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510024
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to create a Japanese version of the exercise motivation for health scale (EMHS) and examine its psychometric validation. Methods: In study 1, participants were 532 Japanese residents (M = 42.82 ± 13.29, 275 males 257 females). A questionnaire (29 items) modified from the motivation for regulation of eating behavior scale (REBS) was completed. In study 2, participants were 679 (M = 42.82 ± 13.29, 296 males and 383 females aged between 20 - 85) Japanese residents. Well-being, social support, and stage of change in transtheoretical model (TTM) were used as criterion to test the validity of EMHS. Results: Study 1 reported that the principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMHS revealed good construct validity. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the 6 subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.89. Study 2 indicated convergent and discriminant validity on relationship between well-being and stage of change. A relatively high compatibility (GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.87, CFI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.08) was observed. Two significant differences between gender groups were found in the sample, a higher autonomous regulation on women, and a higher amotivation on men. Conclusion: The results suggested that the Japanese version of EMHS is reliable and valid, and can be used as a tool for measuring the motivation to exercise for health.
Signaling Crosstalk between PPARγ and BMP2 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Ichiro Takada,Yoshiko Yogiashi,Shigeaki Kato
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/607141
Signaling Crosstalk between PPARγ and BMP2 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Ichiro Takada,Yoshiko Yogiashi,Shigeaki Kato
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/607141
Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that PPARγ’s transactivation function is regulated by extracellular signals. In particular, cytokines and Wnt family proteins suppress the ligand-inducible transactivation function of PPARγ and attenuate adipogenesis/osteoblastogenesis switching in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). For example, Wnt5a suppresses PPARγ transcriptional activity through the NLK/SETDB1/CHD7 pathway. Among these factors, BMP2 strongly induces bone formation, but the effect of BMP2 on PPARγ function remains unclear. We examined the effect of BMP2 and PPARγ in ST2 cells and found that PPARγ activation affected BMP2’s signaling pathway through epigenetic regulation. Although BMP2 did not interfere with PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis, BMP2 increased mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes (such as Fabp4 and Nr1h3) when cells were first treated with troglitazone (TRO). Moreover, PPARγ activation affected BMP2 through enhancement of histone activation markers (acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated Lys4 of histone H3) on the Runx2 promoter. After TRO treatment for three hours, BMP2 enhanced the levels of active histone marks on the promoter of a PPARγ target gene. These results suggest that the order of treatment with BMP2 and a PPARγ ligand is critical for adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis switching in MSCs. 1. Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful tools for regeneration therapy because of the ease of their isolation from patients and straightforward handling in culture. MSCs are derived from various adult tissues (such as adipose tissue and bone marrow) and have the potential to differentiate into a variety of lineages, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myocytes [1, 2]. Recent studies have identified differentiation regulators in MSCs. Among these factors, PPARγ is commonly accepted as the master adipogenic factor since activation of PPARγ in precursors of nonadipogenic lineage cells triggers their transdifferentiation into adipocytes [3, 4]. Endogenous and synthetic PPARγ agonists (15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 and thiazolidinediones) promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteoblastogenesis in primary bone marrow MSC culture [5]. Moreover, treatment of mice with rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione) increases bone marrow adiposity and decreases bone mineral density (BMD, or bone mass) apparently through suppression of pro-osteoblastic transcription factors Runx2, Osterix, and Dlx5 [6, 7]. Haploinsufficiency of PPARγ in mice results in enhanced osteoblastogenesis and decreased bone marrow adipogenesis with increased
Safety and effectiveness of propofol sedation during and after outpatient colonoscopy
Akira Horiuchi,Yoshiko Nakayama,Masashi Kajiyama,Naoyuki Kato
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i26.3420
Abstract: AIM: To study the safety and effectiveness of propofol sedation for outpatient colonoscopy. METHODS: Propofol was given by bolus injection with an age-adjusted standard protocol consisting of 60 mg for patients < 70 years old, 40 mg for patients age 70-89 years, and 20 mg for those ≥ 90 years, and additional injections of 20 mg propofol were given up to a maximum of 200 mg. The principal parameters were the occurrence of adverse events within 24 h after colonoscopy and overall satisfaction for this procedure. Secondary parameters included successful procedure, respiratory depression, and other complications. RESULTS: Consecutive patients were entered prospectively and all 2101 entered successfully completed outpatient colonoscopy. The mean dose of propofol used was 96.4 mg (range 40-200 mg). Younger patients required higher doses of propofol than older patients (20-40 years vs ≥ 61 years: 115.3 ± 32 mg vs 89.7 ± 21 mg, P < 0.001). Transient supplemental oxygen supply was needed by five patients (0.2%); no other complications occurred. The questionnaires were completed by 1820 (87%) of 2101 patients and most rated their overall satisfaction as excellent (80%) or good (17%). The majority (65%) of patients drove home or to their office after their colonoscopy. Most (99%) were willing to repeat the same procedure. No incidents occurred within 24 h after colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Propofol sedation using a dose < 200 mg proved both safe and practical for outpatient colonoscopy.
Reasons for the Creation of New Social Networks by the Elderly after Relocation  [PDF]
Yoshiko Kudo, Kazuko Saeki
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512A005

It is important for the relocated elderly to create social networks within their new environment for their lives and their health. This research examined the reasons why the relocated elderly create social networks in the neighborhood. The research subject area is one snowfall town in Hokkaido, Japan. The subjects are 20 elderly people, who have been relocated to the town. The public health nurses individually conducted an interview and broke down the verbatim records into qualitative descriptions. The subjects ranged from 68 to 94 years old. Reasons why the elderly create social networks in their neighborhoods are to make their lives easier, to prepare for emergencies, to get rid of their loneliness, and to enjoy their lives. Community health providers should understand the need for neighboring social networks based on the elderly people’s condition, and support and create new networks in their community depending on their situations.

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