Abstract:
The Hawking radiation is one of the most interesting phenomena predicted by the theory of quantum field in curved space. The origin of Hawking radiation is closely related to the fact that a particle which marginally escapes from collapsing into a black hole is observed at the future infinity with infinitely large redshift. In other words, such a particle had a very high frequency when it was near the event horizon. Motivated by the possibility that the property of Hawking radiation may be altered by some unknowned physics which may exist beyond some critical scale, Unruh proposed a model which has higher order spatial derivative terms. In his model, the effects of unknown physics are modeled so as to be suppressed for the waves with a wavelength much longer than the critical scale, $k_0^{-1}$. Surprisingly, it was shown that the thermal spectrum is recovered for such modified models. To introduce such higher order spatial derivative terms, the Lorentz invariance must be violated because one special spatial direction needs to be chosen. In previous works, the rest frame of freely-falling observers was employed as this special reference frame. Here we give an extension by allowing a more general choice of the reference frame. Developing the method taken by Corley, % and especially focusing on subluminal case, we show that the resulting spectrum of created particles again becomes the thermal one at the Hawking temperature even if the choice of the reference frame is generalized. Using the technique of the matched asymptotic expansion, we also show that the correction to the thermal radiation stays of order $k_0^{-2}$ or smaller when the spectrum of radiated particle around its peak is concerned.

Abstract:
We review a viable alternative scenario of the inflationary universe in the context of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld. In this scenario, the dynamics of a 5-dimensional scalar field, which we call a bulk scalar field, plays the central role. Focusing on the second (single-brane) RS model, we discuss braneworld inflation driven by a bulk scalar field without introducing an inflaton on the brane. As a toy model, for the bulk scalar field, we consider a minimally coupled massive scalar field in the 5-dimensional spacetime, and look for a perturbative solution of the field equation in the anti-de Sitter background with an inflating brane. For a suitable range of the model parameters, we find a solution that realizes slow-roll inflation on the brane. When the Hubble parameter on the brane and the mass of a bulk scalar field are much smaller than a typical 5-dimensional mass scale, it is found that this proposed inflation scenario reproduces the standard inflation scenario in the 4-dimensional theory.

Abstract:
We investigate the dynamics of a bulk scalar field with various decay channels in the Randall-Sundrum infinite braneworld scenario. A bulk scalar field in this scenario has a quasi-localized mode which dominates the late-time behavior near the brane. As for this mode, an interesting point is the presence of dissipation caused by the escape of the energy in the direction away from the brane, even if the bulk scalar field does not have the interaction with the other bulk fields in the bulk and fields on the brane. We can interpret that this lost energy is transfered to the dark radiation. We show that such an effective 4-dimensional description for a bulk scalar field is valid including the various processes of energy dissipation.

Abstract:
In the context of the braneworld inflation driven by a bulk scalar field, we study the energy dissipation from the bulk scalar field into the matter on the brane in order to understand the reheating after inflation. Deriving the late-time behavior of the bulk field with dissipation by using the Green's function method, we give a rigorous justification of the statement that the standard reheating process is reproduced in this bulk inflaton model as long as the Hubble parameter on the brane and the mass of the bulk scalar field are much smaller than the 5-dimensional inverse curvature scale. Our result supports the idea that the brane inflation model caused by a bulk scalar field is expected to be a viable alternative scenario of the early universe.

Abstract:
Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum brane-world scenario, we investigate the possibility of brane-world inflation driven not by an inflaton field on the brane, but by a bulk, dilaton-like gravitational field. As a toy model for the dilaton-like gravitational field, we consider a minimally coupled massive scalar field in the bulk 5-dimensional spacetime, and look for a perturbative solution in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) background. For an adequate range of the scalar field mass, we find a unique solution that has non-trivial dependence on the 5th dimensional coordinate and that induces slow-roll inflation on the brane.

Abstract:
Reheating or entropy production on the three-brane from a decaying bulk scalar field is studied in the brane-world picture of the Universe. It is shown that a significant amount of dark radiation is produced in this process unless only the specific modes are excited, so that subsequent entropy production within the brane is required in general before primordial nucleosynthesis.

Abstract:
We consider a braneworld inflation model driven by the dynamics of a scalar field living in the 5-dimensional bulk, the so-called ``bulk inflaton model'', and investigate the geometry in the bulk and large scale cosmological perturbations on the brane. The bulk gravitational effects on the brane are described by a projection of the 5-dimensional Weyl tensor, which we denote by $E_{\mu\nu}$. Focusing on a tachionic potential model, we take a perturbative approach in the anti-de Sitter (AdS$_5$) background with a single de Sitter brane. We first formulate the evolution equations for $E_{\mu\nu}$ in the bulk. Next, applying them to the case of a spatially homogeneous brane, we obtain two different integral expressions for $E_{\mu\nu}$. One of them reduces to the expression obtained previously when evaluated on the brane. The other is a new expression that may be useful for analyzing the bulk geometry. Then we consider superhorizon scale cosmological perturbations and evaluate the bulk effects onto the brane. In the limit $H^2\ell^2\ll1$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter on the brane and $\ell$ is the bulk curvature radius, we find that the effective theory on the brane is identical to the 4-dimensional Einstein-scalar theory with a simple rescaling of the potential even under the presence of inhomogeneities. % atleast on super-Hubble horizon scales. In particular, it is found that the anticipated non-trivial bulk effect due to the spatially anisotropic part of $E_{\mu\nu}$ may appear only at %second order in the low energy expansion, i.e., at $O(H^4\ell^4)$.

Abstract:
Based on the recently proposed scenario of inflation driven by a bulk scalar field in the braneworld of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) type, we investigate the dynamics of a bulk scalar field on the inflating braneworld. We derive the late time behavior of the bulk scalar field by analyzing the property of the retarded Green function. We find that the late time behavior is basically dominated by a single (or a pair of) pole(s) in the Green function irrespective of the initial condition and of the signature of $m^{2}=V''(\phi)$, where $V(\phi)$ is the potential of the bulk scalar field. Including the lowest order back-reaction to the geometry, this late time behavior can be well approximated by an effective 4-dimensional scalar field with $m^2_{\mathrm{eff}}=m^2/2$. The mapping to the 4-dimensional effective theory is given by a simple scaling of the potential with a redefinition of the field. Our result supports the picture that the scenario of inflation driven by a bulk scalar field works in a quite similar way to that in the standard 4-dimensional cosmology.

Abstract:
A Randall-Sundrum type brane-cosmological model in which slow-roll inflation on the brane is driven solely by a bulk scalar field was recently proposed by Himemoto and Sasaki. We analyze their model in detail and calculate the quantum fluctuations of the bulk scalar field $\phi$ with $m^2=V''(\phi)$. We decompose the bulk scalar field into the infinite mass spectrum of 4-dimensional fields; the field with the smallest mass-square, called the zero-mode, and the Kaluza-Klein modes above it with a mass gap. We find the zero-mode dominance of the classical solution holds if $|m^2|\bar\ell^2\ll1$, where $\bar{\ell}$ is the curvature radius of the effectively anti-de Sitter bulk, but it is violated if $|m^2|\bar\ell^2\gg1$, though the violation is very small. Then we evaluate the vacuum expectation value $<\delta\phi^2>$ on the brane. We find the zero-mode contribution completely dominates if $|m^2|\bar{\ell}^2\ll 1$ similar to the case of classical background. In contrast, we find the Kaluza-Klein contribution is small but non-negligible if the value of $|m^2|\bar{\ell}^2$ is large.

Abstract:
We calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the stochastic gravitational-wave background in an extreme case that its spectrum has a sharp falloff with its amplitude close to the detection threshold. Such a spectral feature is a characteristic imprint of the change in the number of relativistic degrees of freedom on the stochastic background generated during inflation in the early Universe. We find that, although SNR is maximal with the correct template which is proportional to the assumed real spectrum, its sensitivity to the shape of template is fairly weak indicating that a simple power-law template is sufficient to detect the signature.